Hostname: page-component-5db6c4db9b-fdz9p Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-03-26T10:45:51.140Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Metadynamic recrystallization of Nb–V microalloyed steel during hot deformation

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 January 2017

Wen-fei Shen
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, China
Chi Zhang
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, China
Li-wen Zhang*
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, China
Ying-nan Xia
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, China
Yi-feng Xu
Suxin Special Steel Group Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215151, China
Xin-hua Shi
Suxin Special Steel Group Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215151, China
a)Address all correspondence to this author. e-mail:
Get access


The metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX) behavior of a Nb–V microalloyed nonquenched and tempered steel was investigated by isothermal hot compression tests on Gleeble-1500 thermal-mechanical simulator. Compression tests were performed using double hit schedules at temperatures of 1273–1423 K, strain rates of 0.01–5 s−1, initial grain sizes of 92–149 μm and an inter-pass time of 0.5–10 s. The experimental results show that MDRX softening fraction increases with the increasing of deformation temperature, strain rate, and inter-pass time, while it decreases with the increasing of initial grain size. Based on the experimental results, the MDRX softening fraction kinetic model and recrystallized grain size model of the tested steel was established. Besides, using the above mathematic models, a finite element model was built to simulate the MDRX process of the tested steel. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental ones, which indicates that finite element method is an effective approach to analyze the MDRX behavior and the established that mathematic models of the tested steel are reliable and accurate.

Copyright © Materials Research Society 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Contributing Editor: Jürgen Eckert



Jahazi, M. and Eghbali, B.: The influence of hot forging conditions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of two microalloyed steels. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 113, 594598 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bakkali El Hassani, F., Chenaouia, A., Dkiouak, R., Elbakkali, L., and Alomar, A.: Characterization of deformation stability of medium carbon microalloyed steel during hot forging using phenomenological and continuum criteria. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 199, 140149 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luo, Y., Peng, J.M., Wang, H.B., and Wu, X.C.: Effect of tempering on microstructure and mechanical properties of a non-quenched bainitic steel. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 527, 34273433 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gu, S.D., Zhang, L.W., Ruan, J.H., Zhou, P.Z., and Zhen, Y.: Constitutive modeling of dynamic recrystallization behavior and processing map of 38MnVS6 non-quenched steel. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 23, 10621068 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ceschini, L., Marconi, A., Martini, C., Morri, A., and Di Schino, A.: Tensile and impact behavior of a microalloyed medium carbon steel: Effect of the cooling condition and corresponding microstructure. Mater. Des. 45, 171178 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaynar, A., Gündüz, S., and Türkmen, M.: Investigation on the behavior of medium carbon and vanadium microalloyed steels by hot forging test. Mater. Des. 51, 819825 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shen, W.F., Zhang, L.W., Zhang, C., Xu, Y.F., and Shi, X.H.: Constitutive analysis of dynamic recrystallization and flow behavior of a medium carbon Nb–V microalloyed steel. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 25, 20652073 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roucoules, C., Hodgson, P.D., Yue, S., and Jonas, J.J.: Softening and microstructural change following the dynamic recrystallization of austenite. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 25, 389400 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Xu, Z. and Sakai, T.: Kinetics of recovery and recrystallization in dynamically recrystallized austenite. Mater. Trans. JIM 32, 174180 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin, Y.C. and Chen, M.S.: Study of microstructure evolution during metadynamic recrystallization in a low-alloy steel. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 501, 229234 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin, Y.C., Chen, M.S., and Zhong, J.: Study of metadynamic recrystallization behavior in a low-alloy steel. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 209, 24772482 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu, J., Liu, Y.G., Lin, H., and Li, M.Q.: The metadynamic recrystallization in the two-stage isothermal compression of 300M steel. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 565, 126131 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beladi, H., Cizek, P., and Hodgson, P.D.: The mechanism of metadynamic softening in austenite after complete dynamic recrystallization. Scr. Mater. 62, 191194 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beladi, H., Cizek, P., and Hodgson, P.D.: New insight into the mechanism of metadynamic softening in austenite. Acta Mater. 59, 14821492 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhao, B.C., Zhao, T., Li, G.Y., and Lu, Q.: Metadynamic recrystallizaton behavior of a vanadium–nitrogen microalloyed steel. Met. Mater. Int. 21, 692697 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Medeiros, S.C., Prasad, Y.V.R.K., Frazier, W.G., and Srinivasan, R.: Microstructural modeling of metadynamic recrystallization in hot working of IN 718 superalloy. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 293, 198207 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ullmann, M., Graf, M., Schmidtchen, M., and Kawalla, R.: Metadynamic recrystallization kinetics of twin roll cast AZ31 alloy during hot deformation. Procedia Eng. 81, 15591564 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maghsoudi, M.H., Zarei-Hanzaki, A., Changizian, P., and Marandi, A.: Metadynamic recrystallization behavior of AZ61 magnesium alloy. Mater. Des. 57, 487493 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lin, Y.C., Li, L.T., and Xia, Y.C.: A new method to predict the metadynamic recrystallization behavior in 2124 aluminum alloy. Comput. Mater. Sci. 50, 20382043 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vo, P., Jahazi, M., and Yue, S.: Recrystallization during thermo mechanical processing of IMI834. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 39, 29652980 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fan, X.G., Yang, H., and Gao, P.F.: Deformation behavior and microstructure evolution in multistage hot working of TA15 titanium alloy: On the role of recrystallization. J. Mater. Sci. 46, 60186028 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang, Z.H., Liu, Y.N., Liang, X.K., and She, Y.: The effect of Nb on recrystallization behavior of a Nb micro-alloyed steel. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 473, 254260 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baker, T.N.: Processes, microstructure and properties of vanadium microalloyed steels. Mater. Sci. Technol. 25, 10831107 (2009).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernández, A.I., López, B., and Rodríguez-Ibabe, J.M.: Relationship between the austenite recrystallized fraction and the softening measured from the interrupted torsion test technique. Scr. Mater. 40, 543549 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Djaic, R.A.P. and Jonas, J.J.: Static recrystallization of austenite between intervals of hot working. J. Iron Steel Inst. 210, 256261 (1972).Google Scholar
Gu, S.D., Zhang, C., Zhang, L.W., and Shen, W.F.: Characteristics of metadynamic recrystallization of Nimonic 80A superalloy. J. Mater. Res. 30, 538546 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, F., Cui, Z.S., Sui, D.S., and Fu, B.: Recrystallization of 30Cr2Ni4MoV ultra-super-critical rotor steel during hot deformation. Part III: Metadynamic recrystallization. Mater. Sci. Eng., A 540, 4654 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gu, S.D., Zhang, L.W., Zhang, C., Ruan, J.H., and Zhen, Y.: Modeling the effects of processing parameters on dynamic recrystallization behavior of deformed 38MnVS6 steel. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 24, 17901798 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar