Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-78dcdb465f-jsbx8 Total loading time: 0.358 Render date: 2021-04-19T04:24:24.096Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Experimental investigation and thermodynamic calculation in the Ag–Bi–Ni and Cu–Bi–Ni systems

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 January 2011

X.J. Liu
Affiliation:
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, and Research Center of Materials Design and Applications, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, People's Republic of China
Kiyohito Ishida
Affiliation:
Department of Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8579, Japan
Corresponding
E-mail address:
Get access

Abstract

The phase equilibria at 300, 400, 500, and 600 °C in the Ag–Bi–Ni system and 300, 400, and 500 °C in the Cu–Bi–Ni system were experimentally determined by metallography and electron probe microanalysis on equilibrated alloys and diffusion couples. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to measure the temperatures of phase transformations. All the experimental results show that the solubilities of the ternary elements of the binary intermetallic compounds in the Ag–Bi–Ni system are limited. However, the binary intermetallic compounds have some solubilities of the ternary elements in the Cu–Bi–Ni system. No ternary intermetallic compound was found in the Ag–Bi–Ni and Cu–Bi–Ni systems. On the basis of the determined results, the phase equilibria in the Ag–Bi–Ni and Cu–Bi–Ni systems were thermodynamically assessed, and reasonable agreement between the calculated results and experimental data was obtained.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Materials Research Society 2009

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1Li, Y. and Wong, C.P.: Recent advances of conductive adhesives as a lead-free alternative in electronic packaging: Materials, processing, reliability and applications. Mater. Sci. Eng., R 51, 1 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2Laurila, T., Vuorinen, V., and Kivilahti, J.K.: Interfacial reactions between lead-free solders and common base materials. Mater. Sci. Eng., R 49, 1 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3Takaku, Y., Ohnuma, I., Kainuma, R., Yamada, Y., Yagi, Y., Nishibe, Y., and Ishida, K.: Development of Bi-base high-temperature Pb-free solders with second-phase dispersion: Thermodynamic calculation microstructure, and interfacial reaction. J. Electron. Mater. 35, 1926 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4Lalena, J.N., Dean, N.F., and Weiser, M.W.: Experimental investigation of Ge-doped Bi-11Ag as a new Pb-free solder alloy for power die attachment. J. Electron. Mater. 31, 1244 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5Rettenmayr, M., Lambracht, P., Kempf, B., and Graff, M.: High melting Pb-free solder alloys for die-attach applications. Adv. Eng. Mater. 7, 965 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6Ohnuma, I., Liu, X.J., Ohtani, H., and Ishida, K.: Thermodynamic database for phase diagrams in micro-soldering alloys. J. Electron. Mater. 28, 1164 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7Liu, X.J., Ohnuma, I., Wang, C.P., Jiang, M., Kainuma, R., Ishida, K., Ode, M., Koyama, T., Onodera, H., and Suzuki, T.: Thermodynamic database on microsolders and copper-based alloy systems. J. Electron. Mater. 32, 1265 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8Liu, X.J., Oikawa, K., Ohnuma, I., Kainuma, R., and Ishida, K.: The use of phase diagrams and thermodynamic databases for electronic materials. JOM 55, 53 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9Lee, B.J., Hwang, N.M., and Lee, H.M.: Prediction of interface reaction products between Cu and various solder alloys by thermodynamic calculation. Acta Metall. 45, 1867 (1997).Google Scholar
10Meissner, K.L.: Equilibrium studies of copper and bismuth over three mixtures containing. Z. Metallkd. 14, 173 (1922).Google Scholar
11Chakrabarti, D.J., Laughlin, D.E., Chen, S.W., and Chang, Y.A.: Cu–Ni, , in Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams (ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1990).Google Scholar
12Kattner, U.R.: The thermodynamic modeling of multicomponent phase equilibria. JOM 49, 14 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
13Redlich, O. and Kister, A.T.: Thermodynamics of nonelectrolyte solutions-x-y-t relations in a binary system. Ind. Eng. Chem. 40, 341 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
14Vassilev, G.P., Liu, X.J., and Ishida, K.: Experimental studies and thermodynamic optimization of the Ni–Bi system. J. Phase Equi-lib. 26, 161 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
15Kattner, U.R. and Boettinger, W.J.: On the Sn–Bi–Ag ternary phase diagram. J. Electron. Mater. 23, 603 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
16Liu, X.J., Gao, F., Wang, C.P., and Ishida, K.: Thermodynamic assessments of the Ag–Ni binary and Ag–Cu–Ni ternary systems. J. Electron. Mater. 37, 210 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
17Niemela, J., Effenberg, G., Hack, K., and Spencer, P.J.: A thermodynamic evaluation of the copper-bismuth and copper-lead systems. Calphad 10, 77 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
18Mey, S.A.: Thermodynamic re-evaluation of the Cu–Ni system. Calphad 16, 255 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 39 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th April 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Experimental investigation and thermodynamic calculation in the Ag–Bi–Ni and Cu–Bi–Ni systems
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Experimental investigation and thermodynamic calculation in the Ag–Bi–Ni and Cu–Bi–Ni systems
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Experimental investigation and thermodynamic calculation in the Ag–Bi–Ni and Cu–Bi–Ni systems
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *