Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Perceptions of transformational leadership and job satisfaction: The roles of personality traits and psychological empowerment §

  • Ceren Aydogmus (a1), Selin Metin Camgoz (a2), Azize Ergeneli (a2) and Ozge Tayfur Ekmekci (a2)

Abstract

Through two studies, this paper investigates the moderating effects of personality traits (i.e., extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness and neuroticism) and the mediating effect of psychological empowerment on the relationship between perceived transformational leadership and job satisfaction. Study 1 searches whether personality traits moderate the effects of perceived transformational leadership on followers’ job satisfaction. Using a sample of 221 R&D employees employed by information technology organizations, the results of Study 1 indicate that the more conscientious the employee, the stronger the relationship between perceived transformational leadership and job satisfaction. Study 2 explores whether psychological empowerment mediates the effects of perceived transformational leadership on followers’ job satisfaction. Based on data from 348 academics, the results support the mediating role of psychological empowerment on job satisfaction, in that when employees perceive their leader as transformational they feel more psychologically empowered, which in turn increases job satisfaction levels. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author: caydogmus@bilkent.edu.tr

Footnotes

Hide All
§

This manuscript is an original work that has not been submitted to nor published anywhere else. This study probes the underlying mechanism and the processes of how followers’ perceptions of transformational leadership influence job satisfaction, with a focus on followers’ personality traits and psychological empowerment with two different studies. With this aim, we provide follower-based perspective on leadership issues on management and organizations of benefit to scholars, Human Resource practitioners and managers.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Avolio, B. J. (1999). Full leadership development: Building vital forces in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Avolio, B. J., Bass, B. M., & Jung, D. I. (1999). Re-examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72, 441462.
Avolio, B. J., Zhu, W., Koh, W., & Bhatia, P. (2004). Transformational leadership and organizational commitment: Mediating role of psychological empowerment and moderating role of structural distance. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 25, 951968.
Awamleh, R., & Gardner, W. L. (1999). Perceptions of leader charisma and effectiveness: The effect of vision content, delivery, and organizational performance. Leadership Quarterly, 10(3), 345373.
Aycan, Z. (2001). Human resource management in Turkey-current issues and future challenges. International Journal of Manpower, 22(3), 252260.
Aycan, Z., & Kanungo, R. N. (2000). Topolumsal kültürün kurumsal kültür ve insan kaynakları uygulamalari üzerine etkileri [Effects of social culture on organizational culture and human resources practices]. Management, Leadership, and Human Resources Practices in Turkey. Istanbul, Turkey: DETAM.
Aycan, Z., & Fikret-Pasa, S. (2003). Career choices, job selection criteria, and leadership preferences in a transitional nation: The case of Turkey. Journal of Career Development, 30(2), 129144.
Aycan, Z., Kanungo, R. N., Mendonca, M., Yu, K., Deller, J., Stahl, G., & Khursid, A. (2000). Impact of culture on human resource management practices: A ten country comparison. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 49(1), 192220.
Bartram, T., & Casimir, G. (2006). The relationship between leadership and follower in-role performance and satisfaction with the leader. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 28(1), 419.
Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: The Free Press.
Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill’s handbook of leadership. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. M. (1995). Comment: Transformational leadership looking at other possible antecedents and consequences. Journal of Management Inquiry, 4(3), 293298.
Bass, B. M. (1997). Does the transactional–transformational leadership paradigm transcend organizational and national boundaries? American Psychologist, 52(2), 130139.
Bass, B. M. (1999). Two decades of research and development in transformational leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8, 932.
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1994). Transformational leadership and organizational culture. The International Journal of Public Administration, 17(3-4), 541554.
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1995). Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire: Manual leader form, rater, and scoring key for MLQ (Form 5x-Short). Redwood City, CA: Mind Garden.
Bilgic, R. (1998). The relationship between job satisfaction and personal characteristics of Turkish workers. The Journal of Psychology, 132(5), 549557.
Bitmiş, M. G., & Ergeneli, A. (2011). Contingency approach to strategic management: A test of the mediating effect of leader member exchange on the relationship between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction in 21st century workplace. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 24, 11431153.
Bodla, M. A., & Hussain, G. (2010). Followers’ characteristics and leadership styles: An empirical fit among employees of Pakistan. Journal of US-China Public Administration, 7(6), 7381.
Bogler, R. (2001). The influence of leadership style on teacher job satisfaction. Educational Administration Quarterly, 37(5), 662683.
Bono, J. E., Hooper, A. C., & Yoon, D. J. (2012). Impact of rater personality on transformational and transactional leadership ratings. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(1), 132145.
Braun, S., Peus, C., Weisweiler, S., & Frey, D. (2013). Transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and team performance: A multilevel mediation model of trust. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(1), 270283.
Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
Bycio, P., Hackett, R. D., & Allen, J. S. (1995). Further assessments of Bass’s (1985) conceptualization of transactional and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 468478.
Camgoz, S. M., & Karapinar, P. B. (2011). Managing job satisfaction: The mediating effect of procedural fairness. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(8), 234243.
Castro, B. C., Villegas, P. M. M., & Casillas, B. J. C. (2008). Transformational leadership and followers’ attitudes: The mediating role of psychological empowerment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(10), 18421863.
Christiansen, N., Sliter, M., & Frost, C. T. (2014). What employees dislike about their jobs: Relationship between personality-based fit and work satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 71, 2529.
Cicero, L., & Pierro, A. (2007). Charismatic leadership and organizational outcomes: The mediating role of employees’ work-group identification. International Journal of Psychology, 42(5), 297306.
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.), Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1998). Charismatic leadership in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Conger, J. A., Kanungo, R. N., & Menon, S. T. (2000). Charismatic leadership and follower effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(7), 747767.
Connolly, J., & Viswesvaran, C. (2000). The role of affectivity in job satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 265281.
Cooper-Hakim, A., & Viswesvaran, C. (2005). The construct of work commitment: Testing an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 131(2), 241259.
Çoğaltay, N., Yalcin, M., & Karadağ, E. (2016). Educational leadership and job satisfaction of teachers: A meta-analysis study on the studies published between 2000 and 2016 in Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 62, 273298.
DeNeve, K., & Cooper, H. (1998). The happy personality: A meta-analysis of 137 personality traits and subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 124(2), 197229.
Dust, S. B., Resick, C. J., & Mawritz, M. B. (2014). Transformational leadership, psychological empowerment, and the moderating role of mechanistic–organic contexts. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(3), 413433.
Dvir, T., & Shamir, B. (2003). Follower developmental characteristics as predicting transformational leadership: A longitudinal field study. Leadership Quarterly, 14, 327344.
Eden, D. (1992). Leadership and expectations: Pygmalion effects and other self-fulfilling prophecies in organizations. Leadership Quarterly, 3, 271305.
Ehrhart, M. G., & Klein, K. J. (2001). Predicting followers’ preferences for charismatic leadership: The influence of follower values and personality. The Leadership Quarterly, 12, 153179.
Epitropaki, O., & Martin, R. (2005). The moderating role of individual differences in the relation between transformational/transactional leadership perceptions and organizational identification. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(4), 569589.
Ergeneli, A., Gohar, R., & Temirbekova, Z. (2007). Transformational leadership: Its relationship to culture value dimensions. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 31(6), 703724.
Ergeneli, A., Saglam Ari, G., & Metin, S. (2007). Psychological empowerment and its relationship to trust in immediate managers. Journal of Business Research, 60(1), 4156.
Ettlie, J. E. (1983). Organizational policy and innovation among suppliers to food processing sector. Academy of Management Journal, 26(1), 2744.
Eylon, D., & Bamberger, P. (2000). Empowerment cognitions and empowerment acts: Recognizing the importance of gender. Group and Organization Management, 25, 354372.
Felfe, J., & Schyns, B. (2006). Personality and the perception of transformational leadership: The impact of extraversion, neuroticism, personal need for structure, and occupational self-efficacy. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 708739.
Felfe, J., & Schyns, B. (2010). Followers’ personality and the perception of transformational leadership: Further evidence for the similarity hypothesis. British Journal of Management, 21, 393410.
Fikret-Pasa, S., Kabasakal, H., & Bodur, M. (2001). Society, organizations, and leadership in Turkey. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50(4), 559589.
Fuller, J. B., Morrison, R., Jones, L., Bridger, D., & Brown, V. (1999). The effects of psychological empowerment on transformational leadership and job satisfaction. The Journal of Social Psychology, 139(3), 389391.
Furnham, A., Eracleous, A., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2009). Personality, motivation and job satisfaction: Hertzberg meets the big five. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24(8), 765779.
Garcia-Morales, V. J., Jiménez-Barrionuevo, M. M., & Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, L. (2012). Transformational leadership influence on organizational performance through organizational learning and innovation. Journal of Business Research, 65(7), 10401050.
Gardner, W. L., & Avolio, B. J. (1998). The charismatic relationship: A dramaturgical perspective. Academy of Management Review, 23, 3258.
Ghanbari, S., & Eskandari, A. (2014). Transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and organizational innovation. International Journal of Management Perspective, 1(4), 8194.
Goldberg, L. R. (1990). An alternative ‘description of personality’: The Big-Five factor structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 12161229.
Goregenli, M. (1997). Individualist-collectivist tendencies in a Turkish sample. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 28(6), 787794.
Gumusluoglu, L., & Ilsev, A. (2009). Transformational leadership, creativity, and organizational innovation. Journal of Business Research, 62, 461473.
Gumusluoglu, L., Karakitapoğlu-Aygün, Z., & Hirst, G. (2013). Transformational leadership and R&D workers’ multiple commitments: Do justice and span of control matter? Journal of Business Research, 66(11), 22692278.
Gümüşsoy, Ç. A. (2016). The effect of five-factor model of personality traits on turnover intention among information technology (IT) professionals. Academic Journal of Information Technology, 74(22), 728.
Gürbüz, S. (2009). The effect of high performance HR practices on employees’ job satisfaction. Istanbul University Journal of the School of Business Administration, 38(2), 110123.
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press.
Hayes, A. F., & Preacher, K. J. (2014). Statistical mediation analysis with a multicategorical independent variable. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 67(3), 451470.
Hechanova, M., Alampay, R., & Franco, E. (2006). Psychological empowerment, job satisfaction, and performance among Filipino service workers. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 9, 7278.
Hetland, H., & Sandal, G. (2003). Transformational leadership in Norway: Outcomes and personality correlates. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 12(2), 147170.
Hetland, H., Sandal, G. M., & Johnsen, T. B. (2008). Followers’ personality and leadership. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 14(4), 322331.
Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Howell, J. P., Dorfman, P. W., & Kerr, S. (1986). Moderator variables in leadership research. Academy of Management Review, 11, 88102.
Hsieh, J. Y. (2013). Impact of individual and organizational factors on job satisfaction: A comparison of multilevel models and multiple regression models using different data arrangements. Journal of Management & Organization, 19(1), 4459.
Hulin, C. L., & Judge, T. A. (2003). Job attitudes. In W. C. Bornman & D. R. Ilgen (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 255276). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Hurtz, G. M., & Donovan, J. J. (2000). Personality and job performance: The big five revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 869879.
John, O. P., Donahue, E. M., & Kentle, R. L. (1991). The Big Five Inventory – Versions 4a and 54. Berkeley, CA: Institute of Personality and Social Research, University of California.
Joo, B. K. B., & Lim, T. (2013). Transformational leadership and career satisfaction: The mediating role of psychological empowerment. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 20(10), 111.
Judge, T. A,., & Bono, J. E. (2000). Five-factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 751765.
Judge, T. A., Heller, D., & Mount, M. K. (2002). Five-factor model of personality and job satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(3), 530541.
Judge, T. A., Scott, B. A., & Ilies, R. (2006). Hostility, job attitudes, and workplace deviance: Test of a multi-level model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 126138.
Jung, D. I., Chow, C., & Wu, A. (2003). The role of transformational leadership in enhancing organizational innovation: Hypotheses and some preliminary findings. The Leadership Quarterly, 14(4), 525544.
Jung, D. I., & Sosik, J. J. (2002). Transformational leadership in work groups: The role of empowerment, cohesiveness and collective-efficacy on perceived group performance. Small Group Research, 33(3), 313336.
Kabasakal, H., & Bodur, M. (1998). Leadership, values and institutions: The case of Turkey. Research papers. Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey.
Kagitcibasi, C. (1996). Family and human development across cultures: A view from the other side. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Ass.
Kark, R., Shamir, B., & Chen, G. (2003). The two faces of transformational leadership: Empowerment and dependency. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 246255.
Keegan, A. E., & Hartog, D. N. D. (2004). Transformational leadership in a project-based environment: A comparative study of the leadership styles of project managers and line managers. Project Management, 22, 609617.
Keller, T. (1999). Images of the familiar: Individual differences and implicit leadership theories. Leadership Quarterly, 10, 589607.
Kerfoot, K. (2001). From motivation to inspiration leadership. Nursing Economics, 19, 242243.
Kim, H., & Chung, Y. W. (2014). The use of social networking services and their relationship with the big five personality model and job satisfaction in Korea. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17(10), 658663.
Krishnan, V. R. (2012). Transformational leadership and personal outcomes: Empowerment as mediator. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 33(6), 550563.
Locke, E. A. (1969). What is job satisfaction? Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4, 309336.
Lord, R. G., DeVader, C. L., & Alliger, G. M. (1986). A meta-analysis of the relation between personality traits and leadership perceptions: An application of validity generalization procedures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 402410.
Lowe, K. B., Kroeck, K. G., & Sivasubramaniam, N. (1996). Effectiveness correlates of transformation and transactional leadership: A metaanalytic review of the MLQ literature. Leadership Quarterly, 7, 385425.
Lucas, R. E., Diener, E., Grob, A., Suh, E. M., & Shao, L. (2000). Cross-cultural evidence for the fundamental features of extraversion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(3), 452468.
Mardanov, I. T., Heischmidt, K., & Henson, A. (2008). Leader-member exchange and job satisfaction bond and predicted employee turnover. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 15(2), 159175.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. (1991). Adding Liebe und Arbeit: The full five-factor model and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 817(2), 227232.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1997). Personality trait structure as a human universal. American Psychologist, 52(5), 509516.
Monzani, L., Ripoll, P., & Silla, J. M. P. (2014). Followers’ agreeableness and extraversion and their loyalty towards authentic leadership. Psicothema, 26(1), 6975.
Moss, S. A., & Ngu, S. (2006). The relationship between personality and leadership preferences. Current Research in Social Psychology, 11(6), 7091.
Nielsen, T. M., Hrivnak, G. A., & Shaw, M. (2009). Organizational citizenship behavior and performance: A meta-analysis of group-level research. Small Group Research, 40, 123.
Organ, D. W., & Lingl, A. (1995). Personality, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Social Psychology, 135, 339350.
Ozaralli, N. (2003). Effects of transformational leadership on empowerment and team effectiveness. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 24(6), 335344.
Pai, A., & Krishnan, V. R. (2015). Can transformational leadership increase the happiness index in organisations through empowerment? Journal of Organisation & Human Behaviour, 2(3), 2228.
Parmer, L., Green, M., Duncan, P., & Zarate, C. (2013). The relationship between followers’ personality and preferences in leadership. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, 10(2), 5564.
Parry, K. W., & Sinha, P. N. (2005). Researching the trainability of transformational organizational leadership. Human Resource Development International, 8(2), 165183.
Pelit, E., Öztürk, Y., & Arslantürk, Y. (2011). The effects of employee empowerment on employee job satisfaction: A study on hotels in Turkey. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(6), 784802.
Piccolo, R. F., & Colquitt, J. A. (2006). Transformational leadership and job behaviors: The mediating role of core job characteristics. Academy of Management Journal, 49(2), 327340.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879903.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H., & Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers’ trust in leader satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 1(2), 107142.
Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12, 531544.
Qu, R., Janssen, O., & Shi, K. (2015). Transformational leadership and follower creativity: The mediating role of follower relational identification and the moderating role of leader creativity expectations. The Leadership Quarterly, 26(2), 286299.
Rafferty, A. E., & Griffin, M. A. (2004). Dimensions of transformational leadership: Conceptual and empirical extensions. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(3), 329354.
Rusting, C. L., & Larsen, R. J. (1997). Extraversion, neuroticism, and susceptibility to positive and negative affect: A test of two theoretical models. Personality and Individual Differences, 22(5), 607612.
Salgado, J. F. (1997). The five factor model of personality and job performance in the European community. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(1), 3043.
Schyns, B., & Felfe, J. (2006). The personality of followers and its effect on the perception of leadership an overview, a study, and a research agenda. Small Group Research, 37(5), 522539.
Shamir, B., House, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: A self-concept based theory. Organization Science, 4(4), 577594.
Slater, R. (2003). 29 Leadership secrets from Jack Welch. New York: McGraw Hill.
Spector, P. E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 14421465.
Sumer, N., Lajunen, T., & Ozkan, T. (2005). Big five personality traits as the distal predictors of road accident involvement. In G. Underwood (Ed.), Traffic and transport psychology (pp. 215–227). Oxford: Elsevier Ltd.
Templer, K. J. (2012). Five-factor model of personality and job satisfaction: The importance of agreeableness in a tight and collectivistic Asian society. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 61(1), 114129.
Tepper, B. J., & Percy, P. M. (1994). Structural validity of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54, 734744.
Thomas, K. W., & Velthouse, B. A. (1990). Cognitive elements of empowerment: An interpretive model of intrinsic task motivation. Academy of Management Review, 15(4), 666681.
Top, M., Tarcan, M., Tekingündüz, S., & Hikmet, N. (2013). An analysis of relationships among transformational leadership, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational trust in two Turkish hospitals. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 28(3), 217241.
Walumbwa, F. O., & Lawler, J. J. (2003). Building effective organizations: Transformational leadership, collectivist orientation, work-related attitudes, and withdrawal behaviors in three emerging economies. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(7), 10831101.
Walumbwa, F. O., Orwa, B., Wang, P., & Lawler, J. J. (2005). Transformational leadership, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction: A comparative study of Kenyan and US financial firms. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 16(2), 235256.
Wang, G., & Lee, P. D. (2009). Psychological empowerment and job satisfaction: An analysis of interactive effects. Group & Organization Management, 34(3), 126.
Watson, D., Hubbard, B., & Wiese, D. (2000). General traits of personality and affectivity as predictors of satisfaction in intimate relationships: Evidence from self‐and partner‐ratings. Journal of Personality, 68(3), 413449.
Weiss, D. J., Dawis, R. V., England, G. W., & Lofquist, L. H. (1967). Manual for the Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire. Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota Studies in Vocational Rehabilitation, University of Minnesota Industrial Relations Center.
Weiss, H. M., & Cropanzano, R. (1996). Affective events theory: A theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work. Staw, Barry M. (Ed); Cummings, L. L. (Ed). Research in Organizational Behavior, 18, 174.
Winkelmann, L., & Winkelmann, R. (2008). Personality, work, and satisfaction: Evidence from the German socio-economic panel. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 3(4), 266275.
Wofford, J. C., Whittington, J. L., & Goodwin, V. L. (2001). Follower motive patterns as situational moderators for transformational leadership effectiveness. Journal of Managerial Issues, 13(2), 196211.
Yammarino, F. J., Dubinsky, A. J., Comer, L. B., & Jolson, M. A. (1997). Women and transformational and contingent reward leadership: A multiple-levels-of-analysis perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 40(1), 205222.
Yukl, G. A. (1994). Leadership in organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Perceptions of transformational leadership and job satisfaction: The roles of personality traits and psychological empowerment §

  • Ceren Aydogmus (a1), Selin Metin Camgoz (a2), Azize Ergeneli (a2) and Ozge Tayfur Ekmekci (a2)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.