Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Mixed projections and syntactic categories

  • JOHN J. LOWE (a1)

Abstract

I explore the bases of a ‘distributionalist’ approach to syntactic categories, that is, an approach that makes distinctions on the basis of purely syntactic (as opposed to, say, semantic) criteria. I focus on the phenomenon of ‘mixed projections’, where a syntactic phrase appears to display properties of more than one syntactic category, as analysed within the framework of Lexical-Functional Grammar. I argue that of the three syntactic criteria called upon in the definition of syntactic categories within this approach, only one, the internal syntactic structure of a phrase, is a sufficient criterion for syntactic categorization. This leads to a more restricted definition of category mixing and implies a more restricted approach to categorization in general.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author’s address: University of Oxford, Centre for Linguistics & Philology, Walton Street, Oxford OX1 2HG, UKjohn.lowe@ling-phil.ox.ac.uk

Footnotes

Hide All

I am grateful for insightful comments and criticisms to Andrew Spencer, to the audience at SE-LFG 20, 21 May 2016, in particular Louisa Sadler, John Payne, Miriam Butt and Jamie Findlay, and to the audience at HEADLEX16, 25 July 2016, in particular Bob Borsley and Dag Haug. I am also very grateful to Lama Alhelou for assistance with the Arabic data. This work was supported by a grant from the Jill Hart Fund for Indo-Iranian Philology at the University of Oxford, and parts of the work were undertaken while I was in receipt of an Early Career Research Fellowship from the Leverhulme Trust. All errors are of course my own.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Abney, Steven. 1987. The English noun phrase in its sentential aspect. Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.
Alexiadou, Artemis, Iordăchioaia, Gianina & Schäfer, Florian. 2011. Scaling the variation in Romance and Germanic nominalizations. In Sleeman, Petra & Perridon, Harry (eds.), Noun phrase in Romance and Germanic: Structure, variation and change, 2540. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Alsharif, Ahmad.2014. The syntax of negation in Arabic. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Essex.
Arnold, Doug & Sadler, Louisa. 2013. Displaced dependent constructions. In Butt, Miriam & King, Tracy Holloway (eds.), Proceedings of the LFG13 Conference, 4868. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Asudeh, Ash. 2012. The logic of pronominal resumption. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Baker, Mark C. 2003. Lexical categories: Verbs, nouns, and adjectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Blackburn, Patrick & Gardent, Claire. 1995. A specification language for lexical functional grammars. Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 3944. Association for Computational Linguistics.
Bögel, Tina. 2015. The syntax-prosody interface in lexical functional grammar. Ph.D. dissertation, Universität Konstanz.
Börjars, Kersti, Madkhali, Safiah & Payne, John. 2015. Masdars and mixed category constructions. In Butt, Miriam & King, Tracy Holloway (eds.), Proceedings of the LFG15 Conference, 2642. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Borsley, Robert D. & Kornfilt, Jaklin. 2000. Mixed extended projections. In Borsley, Robert D. (ed.), The nature and function of syntactic categories, 101131. New York: Academic Press.
Bresnan, Joan. 1997. Mixed categories as head sharing constructions. In Butt, Miriam & King, Tracy Holloway (eds.), Proceedings of the LFG97 Conference. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Bresnan, Joan. 2000. Optimal syntax. In Dekkers, Joost, Leeuw, Frank van der & Weijer, Jeroen van de (eds.), Optimality theory: Phonology, syntax and acquisition, 334385. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bresnan, Joan. 2001. Lexical-functional syntax. Oxford: Blackwell.
Bresnan, Joan, Asudeh, Ash, Toivonen, Ida & Wechsler, Stephen. 2016. Lexical-functional syntax. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; Second edition. First edition by Joan Bresnan, 2001, Blackwell.
Bresnan, Joan & Mugane, John. 2006. Agentive nominalizations in Gĩkũyũ and the theory of mixed categories. In Butt, Miriam, Dalrymple, Mary & King, Tracy Holloway (eds.), Intelligent linguistic architectures: Variations on themes by Ronald M. Kaplan, 201234. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Butt, Miriam & King, Tracy Holloway. 1997. Null elements in discourse structure. MS, University of Konstanz. http://ling.uni-konstanz.de/pages/home/butt/main/papers/nulls97.pdf.
Butt, Miriam & King, Tracy Holloway. 1998. Interfacing phonology with LFG. In Butt, Miriam & King, Tracy Holloway (eds.), Proceedings of the LFG98 Conference. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Butt, Miriam, King, Tracy Holloway, Niño, María-Eugenia & Segond, Frédérique. 1999. A grammar writer’s cookbook. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Chomsky, Noam. 1981. Lectures on government and binding: The pisa lectures. Dordrecht: Foris.
Dalrymple, Mary. 2001. Lexical functional grammar. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Dalrymple, Mary, Kaplan, Ronald M. & King, Tracy Holloway. 2015. Economy of expression as a principle of syntax. Journal of Language Modelling 3.2, 377412.
Dalrymple, Mary, Lamping, John, Pereira, Fernando & Saraswat, Vijay. 1996. A deductive account of quantification in LFG. In Kanazawa, Makoto, Piñón, Christopher J. & Henriette, de Swart (eds.), Quantifiers, deduction and context, 3357. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Dalrymple, Mary & Mycock, Louise. 2011. The prosody-semantics interface. In Butt, Miriam & King, Tracy Holloway (eds.), Proceedings of the LFG11 Conference, 173193. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Dalrymple, Mary & Nikolaeva, Irina. 2011. Objects and information structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Drijkoningen, Frank. 1992. Derivation in syntax. In Aronoff, Mark (ed.), Morphology now, 4868. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Fassi Fehri, Abdelkader. 1993. Issues in the structure of Arabic clauses and words. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
Grimshaw, Jane. 1990. Argument structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Grimshaw, Jane. 1991. Extended projections. MS, Brandeis University.
Grimshaw, Jane. 2000. Locality and extended projection. In Coopmans, Peter, Everaert, Martin & Grimshaw, Jane (eds.), Lexical specification and insertion, 115134. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Grosu, Alexander & Thompson, Sandra A.. 1977. Constraints on the distribution of NP clauses. Language 53.1, 104151.
Hamm, Fritz & Lambalgen, Michiel van. 2005. Formal foundations for semantic theories of nominalization. ZAS Papers in Linguistics 27, 121.
Haug, Dag T. T. & Nikitina, Tanya. 2016. Feature sharing in agreement. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 34, 865910.
Hristov, Božhil P. 2013. Pronominal case assignment in English. Journal of Linguistics 49.3, 567611.
Hudson, Richard A. 2003. Gerunds without phrase structure. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 21, 579615.
Jackendoff, Ray. 1977. X̄ syntax: A study of phrase structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Kaplan, Ronald M. 1987. Three seductions of computational psycholinguistics. In Whitelock, P., Wood, M. M., Somers, H. L., Johnson, R. & Bennett, P. (eds.), Linguistic theory and computer applications, 149181. London: Academic Press; Also in Formal Issues in Lexical-Functional Grammar, ed. Mary Dalrymple, Ronald M. Kaplan, John T. Maxwell III and Annie Zaenen, CSLI Publications, 1995, pp. 339–367.
Kaplan, Ronald M. 1989. The formal architecture of lexical-functional grammar. In Huang, Chu-Ren & Chen, Keh-Jiann (eds.), ROCLING II: Proceedings of the Computational Linguistics Conference, 318. Tapei: The Association for Computational Linguistics and Chinese Language Processing (ACLCLP). Also published in Journal of Information Science and Engineering 5 (1989, pp. 305–322, and in Formal Issues in Lexical-Functional Grammar, ed. Mary Dalrymple, Ronald M. Kaplan, John T. Maxwell III and Annie Zaenen, CSLI Publications, 1995, pp. 7–27.
Kaplan, Ronald M. & Bresnan, Joan. 1982. Lexical-functional grammar: A formal system for grammatical representation. In Bresnan, Joan (ed.), The mental representation of grammatical relations, 173281. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Kaplan, Ronald M. & Zaenen, Annie. 1989. Long-distance dependencies, constituent structure, and functional uncertainty. In Baltin, Mark R. & Kroch, Anthony S. (eds.), Alternative conceptions of phrase structure, 1742. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
King, Tracy Holloway. 1997. Focus Domains and Information-Structure. In Butt, Miriam & King, Tracy Holloway (eds.), Proceedings of the LFG97 Conference. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
King, Tracy Holloway. 2016. Theoretical linguistics and grammar engineering as mutually constraining disciplines. In Arnold, Doug, Butt, Miriam, Crysmann, Berthold, King, Tracy Holloway & Müller, Stefan (eds.), Proceedings of the HeadLex16 Conference, 339359. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Kornfilt, Jaklin & Whitman, John. 2011. Afterword: Nominalizations in syntactic theory. Lingua 121, 12971313.
Kümmel, Martin Joachim. 1996. Stativ und Passivaorist im Indoiranischen. Historische Sprachforschung: Ergänzungheft 39. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Lapointe, Steven G. 1993. Dual lexical categories and the syntax of mixed category phrases. In Kathol, A. & Bernstein, M. (eds.), Proceedings of the Eastern States Conference on Linguistics, 199210. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.
Lowe, John J. 2015. Participles in Rigvedic Sanskrit: The syntax and semantics of adjectival verb forms. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lowe, John J. 2016. Participles, gerunds and syntactic categories. In Arnold, Doug, Butt, Miriam, Crysmann, Berthold, King, Tracy Holloway & Müller, Stefan (eds.), Proceedings of the HeadLex16 Conference, 401421. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Malouf, Robert. 1996. A constructional approach to English verbal gerunds. Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: General Session and Parasession on the Role of Learnability in Grammatical Theory, 255266. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Society.
Malouf, Robert. 2000. Mixed categories in the hierarchical lexicon. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Marcotte, Jean-Philippe. 2014. Syntactic categories in the correspondence architecture. In Butt, Miriam & King, Tracy Holloway (eds.), Proceedings of the LFG14 Conference, 408428. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Maxwell, John T. Jr III & Kaplan, Ronald M.. 1994. The interface between phrasal and functional constraints. Computational Linguistics 19.4, 571590.
McCawley, James D. 1998. The syntactic phenomena of English, 2nd edn. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Meier-Brügger, Michael. 2003. Indo-European linguistics. Berlin: De Gruyter.
Mugane, John M.1996. Bantu nominalization structures. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson.
Musan, Renate. 1997. Tense, predicates, and lifetime effects. Natural Language Semantics 5, 271301.
Mycock, Louise. 2006. The Typology of Constituent Questions: A Lexical-Functional Grammar analysis of ‘wh’-questions. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Manchester.
Nikitina, Tatiana V.2008. The mixing of syntactic properties and language change. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University.
Nikitina, Tatiana V. & Haug, Dag T. T.. 2016. Syntactic nominalization in Latin: a case of non-canonical subject agreement. Transactions of the Philological Society 114.1, 2550.
Nordlinger, Rachel & Sadler, Louisa. 2004a. Tense beyond the verb: Encoding clausal tense/aspect/mood on nominal dependents. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 22.3, 597641.
Nordlinger, Rachel & Sadler, Louisa. 2004b. Nominal tense in crosslinguistic perspective. Language 80.4, 776806.
Panagiotidis, E. Phoevos. 2010. Nonargumental mixed projections. Syntax 13, 165182.
Panagiotidis, E. Phoevos. 2015. Categorial features: A generative theory of word-class categories. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Payne, John, Huddleston, Rodney & Pullum, Geoffrey K.. 2010. The distribution and category status of adjectives and adverbs. Word Structure 3.1, 3181.
Pires, Acrisio. 2001. The syntax of gerunds and infinitives: subjects, case and control. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland.
Pires, Acrisio. 2006. The minimalist syntax of defective domains: Gerunds and infinitives. Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Pires, Acrisio. 2007. The derivation of clausal gerunds. Syntax 10.2, 165203.
Pollard, Carl J.1996. The nature of constraint-based grammar. Paper presented at the Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information, and Computation, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea. http://lingo.stanford.edu/sag/L221a/pollard-96.txt.
Pullum, Geoffrey K. 2007. The evolution of model-theoretic frameworks in linguistics. In Rogers, James & Kepser, Stephan (eds.), Model-theoretic syntax at 10 (Proceedings of the mts10 Workshop, August 13–17, Organized as part of ESSLLI 2007), 110. Dublin: Trinity College Dublin.
Pullum, Geoffrey K. & Scholz, Barbara C.. 2001. On the distinction between model-theoretic and generative-enumerative syntactic frameworks. In de Groote, Philippe, Morrill, Glyn & Retoré, Christian (eds.), Logical Aspects of Computational Linguistics: 4th International Conference (Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, 2099), 1743. Berlin: Springer.
Rau, Jeremy. 2009. Indo-European Nominal Morphology: The Decads and the Caland System. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen der Universität Innsbruck.
Ross, John Robert. 1967. Constraints on variables in syntax. Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.
Ryding, Karin C. 2005. A reference grammar of Modern Standard Arabic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Sadler, Louisa & Arnold, Doug. 1994. Prenominal adjectives and the phrasal/lexical distinction. Journal of Linguistics 30, 187226.
Seiss, Melanie. 2008. The English -ingform. In Butt, Miriam & King, Tracy Holloway (eds.), Proceedings of the LFG08 Conference, 454472. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Spencer, Andrew. 2004. Towards a typology of mixed categories. In Orhan Orgun, C & Sells, Peter (eds.), Morphology and the web of grammar: Essays in memory of Steven G. Lapointe. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Spencer, Andrew. 2013. Lexical relatedness: A paradigm-based approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Spencer, Andrew. 2015. Participial relatives in LFG. In Butt, Miriam & King, Tracy Holloway (eds.), Proceedings of the LFG15 Conference, 378398. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Struckmeier, Volker & Kremers, Joost. 2014. On the properties of attributive phrases. In Sleeman, Petra, Velde, Frank van de & Perridon, Harry (eds.), Adjectives in Germanic and Romance. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Toivonen, Ida. 2003. Non-projecting words: A case study of Swedish verbal particles. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Tonhauser, Judith. 2005. Towards an understanding of the meaning of nominal tense. In Maier, Emar, Bary, Corien & Huitnink, J (eds.), Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 9, 475488. Nijmegen: Nijmegen Centre of Semantics.
Tonhauser, Judith. 2007. Nominal tense? The meaning of Guarani nominal temporal markers. Language 83, 831869.
Wescoat, Michael T. 1994. Phrase structure, lexical sharing, partial ordering, and the English gerund. Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: General Session Dedicated to the Contributions of Charles J. Fillmore, 587598. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Linguistics
  • ISSN: 0022-2267
  • EISSN: 1469-7742
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-linguistics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed