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To examine the reasons for discharging mastoid cavities, the operative findings during revision surgery, and the medium-term outcome.
One hundred and forty revision mastoidectomies in 131 patients were studied. Post-operatively, patients were followed up at three, six and 12 months and then yearly.
A variety of techniques were performed. Over 80 per cent of ears were treated with mastoid obliteration. Concomitant hearing restorative procedures were carried out in one-third of the ears.
The mastoid cavities were troublesome because of large cavity size, bony overhang, residual infected mastoid cells, the presence of cholesteatoma or perforations, and/or inadequate meatoplasty. One year after revision mastoidectomy, over 95 per cent of the ears had become completely ‘dry’ and water-resistant. Overall, 50.9 per cent of the ears had a 12-month post-operative air–bone gap of 20 dB or less.
Revision mastoidectomy has a high success rate in converting troublesome mastoid cavities into dry, water-resistant ears.
This study aimed to demonstrate the histological and immunohistological features of skin biopsy specimens from patients complaining of isolated itching of the external auditory canal.
Materials and methods:
A prospective, case–control study was performed of 24 patients undergoing evaluation for contact dermatitis of the external auditory canal, and 24 controls. Skin biopsies were examined histologically by a single, blinded dermatopathologist, using light microscopy, to determine histopathological characteristics. The immunohistological presence of the antimicrobial peptides human β-defensin-3 and LL-37 cathelicidin was also assessed. Findings for patients and controls were compared.
There was a statistically significant difference in the degree of inflammation, comparing patients and controls (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the presence of spongiotic changes, comparing patients and controls (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the patients' skin biopsies did not show pronounced expression of human β-defensin-3 or LL-37 cathelicidin.
Histological and immunohistological examination of skin biopsies from cases of isolated itching of the external auditory canal did not support a diagnosis of dermatitis.
To assess the association between age-related macular degeneration and age-related hearing loss in Turkish subjects aged 50 years or older.
Study design and setting:
Prospective, case–control study within a tertiary university hospital.
Subjects and methods:
Fifty subjects with age-related macular degeneration and 43 healthy subjects underwent ophthalmological and otolaryngological examination. Statistical analyses were conducted for the poorer eye and ear, comparing age-related hearing loss and pure tone average in the macular degeneration group versus controls.
Median pure tone average was significantly poorer in the macular degeneration group (35 dBHL) compared with controls (23 dBHL). In the macular degeneration group, hearing loss was significantly greater in dry type (43 dBHL) than wet type (32 dBHL) cases. There was a significant difference between the prevalence of varying degrees of hearing loss in the macular degeneration versus control groups, being respectively: mild, 50 and 35 per cent; moderate, 20 and 5 per cent; and severe, 6 and 0 per cent. There was a weak, but significant correlation between each patient's visual acuity and pure tone average results (rs = −0.37, p < 0.001).
Age-related hearing loss is more common in patients with age-related macular degeneration. Such patients should be questioned regarding hearing difficulty, and referred to an otolaryngologist if appropriate.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of lengthening the transition duration of selected speech segments upon the perception of those segments in individuals with auditory dys-synchrony.
Thirty individuals with auditory dys-synchrony participated in the study, along with 30 age-matched normal hearing listeners. Eight consonant–vowel syllables were used as auditory stimuli. Two experiments were conducted. Experiment one measured the ‘just noticeable difference’ time: the smallest prolongation of the speech sound transition duration which was noticeable by the subject. In experiment two, speech sounds were modified by lengthening the transition duration by multiples of the just noticeable difference time, and subjects' speech identification scores for the modified speech sounds were assessed.
Subjects with auditory dys-synchrony demonstrated poor processing of temporal auditory information. Lengthening of speech sound transition duration improved these subjects' perception of both the placement and voicing features of the speech syllables used.
These results suggest that innovative speech processing strategies which enhance temporal cues may benefit individuals with auditory dys-synchrony.
To define the clinical and audiological features of normal-hearing tinnitus patients with spontaneous otoacoustic emissions, and to evaluate the role of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in tinnitus generation.
Materials and methods:
Thirty-two patients with spontaneous otoacoustic emissions were compared with 29 patients without spontaneous otoacoustic emissions, regarding clinical and audiological aspects.
The mean age of the study group subjects was significantly lower, and they experienced the kindling effect less frequently than the control group. The mean tinnitus handicap inventory score of the study group was considerably higher than that of the controls, although the difference was not statistically significant. The study group had significantly quieter tinnitus, and higher transient evoked and distortion product otoacoustic emission responses, compared with the control group.
Normal-hearing tinnitus patients with spontaneous otoacoustic emissions have different clinical and audiological characteristics, compared with those without spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. Appropriate evaluation and treatment should be considered at an early stage in these patients.
To evaluate the correlation between caloric and vestibular evoked myogenic potential test results, initial audiogram data, and early hearing recovery, in patients with idiopathic sudden hearing loss.
Materials and methods:
One hundred and four patients with unilateral idiopathic sudden hearing loss underwent complete neurotological evaluation. Results for vestibular evoked myogenic potential and caloric testing were compared with patients' initial and final audiograms.
Overall, abnormal vestibular evoked myogenic potential responses occurred in 28.8 per cent of patients, whereas abnormal caloric test results occurred in 50 per cent. A statistically significant relationship was found between the type of inner ear lesion and the incidence of profound hearing loss. Moreover, a negative correlation was found between the extent of the inner ear lesion and the likelihood of early recovery.
In patients with idiopathic sudden hearing loss, the extent of the inner ear lesion tends to correlate with the severity of cochlear damage. Vestibular assessment may be valuable in predicting the final outcome.
To evaluate the relationship between lipoproteins, fibrinogen and sudden sensorineural hearing loss in a Croatian population. Since pathological derangement of lipoproteins and fibrinogen could be one of the causes of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, we hypothesised that patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss would have more abnormal fibrinogen and lipoprotein concentrations, compared with subjects with normal hearing.
Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, fibrinogen and triglycerides in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss were compared with those in a control group (i.e. subjects with normal hearing function).
Patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss had significantly higher plasma concentrations of cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, compared with controls.
Higher cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were found in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss, within a Croatian population. Cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations may be important factors in the pathogenesis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, and should be assessed during the investigation of patients with this condition.
To present the auditory implant manipulator, a navigation-controlled mechanical and electronic system which enables minimally invasive (‘keyhole’) transmastoid access to the tympanic cavity.
Materials and methods:
The auditory implant manipulator is a miniaturised robotic system with five axes of movement and an integrated drill. It can be mounted on the operating table. We evaluated the surgical work field provided by the system, and the work sequence involved, using an anatomical whole head specimen.
The work field provided by the auditory implant manipulator is considerably greater than required for conventional mastoidectomy. The work sequence for a keyhole procedure included pre-operative planning, arrangement of equipment, the procedure itself and post-operative analysis.
Although system improvements are necessary, our preliminary results indicate that the auditory implant manipulator has the potential to perform keyhole insertion of implantable hearing devices.
To assess the reliability of visually assessed thresholds of the electrically elicited stapedius reflex, recorded during cochlear implant surgery, compared with intra-operative tympanometric threshold assessment. Intra-operatively recorded electrically elicited stapedius reflex thresholds vary considerably, and differ from those measured post-operatively by means of impedance changes (i.e. using tympanometry). Thus, any confounding effect of different intra-operative techniques and visual assessment inaccuracies should be excluded.
Both techniques (i.e. visual observation and tympanometry) were performed intra-operatively in six patients, and threshold values were compared.
Recorded electrically elicited stapedius reflex thresholds were very similar for both techniques. Visually assessed thresholds were slightly higher in some cases and lower in others, compared with tympanometric thresholds.
There was almost no difference between reflex thresholds measured with the two different techniques under the same intra-operative conditions. Therefore, we conclude that differences between intra- and post-operative thresholds are not due to the use of different measuring techniques. The main reason for such differences is probably the influence of intra-operative narcotics on reflex thresholds.
To determine whether tympanostomy tube insertion has benefit, compared with simple myringotomy, in children with otitis media with effusion who receive concurrent adenoidectomy as treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome caused by adenoid hypertrophy.
Fifty-two children older than three years with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome were randomly assigned to receive either adenoidectomy plus tympanostomy tube insertion (group one, n = 25) or adenoidectomy plus myringotomy (group two, n = 27). Pre- and post-operative health-related quality of life was assessed using the otitis media-6 (OM-6) tool, and audiological outcomes were recorded six and 12 months post-operatively.
Group one showed better quality of life scores six months post-operatively (score difference −0.38, confidence interval −0.65 to −0.10) but not 12 months post-operatively (score difference −0.23, confidence interval −0.76 to 0.11), compared with pre-operative values. Audiological outcomes did not differ significantly at either time point, compared with pre-operative values.
Tympanostomy tube insertion confers a short term benefit, compared with simple myringotomy, in children older than three years with otitis media with effusion who receive concurrent adenoidectomy as treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Further studies are necessary to identify which of these children will receive long-lasting benefit from tympanostomy tube insertion.
To assess the correlation between bacterial pathogens in the adenoid core and the middle meatus, in children with hypertrophied adenoids and chronic or recurrent sinusitis.
The study was conducted at Alexandria University Hospitals. We included 103 children aged four to 12 years who were scheduled for adenoidectomy and who had clinical and/or radiological evidence of chronic or recurrent sinusitis. Adenoid core specimens and middle meatal swabs were obtained from every patient and were sent for bacteriological evaluation using standard qualitative and quantitative microbiological techniques. The results were statistically analysed.
The bacterial species isolated most frequently from the adenoid core were coagulase-negative staphylococci (40.8 per cent), Staphylococcus aureus (22.3 per cent), Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.4 per cent), Haemophilus influenzae (16.5 per cent) and group A streptococci (15.5 per cent). The bacterial species isolated most frequently from the middle meatus were coagulase-negative staphylococci (41.7 per cent), S aureus (32 per cent), S pneumoniae (28.1 per cent), H influenzae (21.6 per cent) and group A streptococci (19.4 per cent). The adenoid core and middle meatal cultures were both positive for at least one bacterial species in 63 cases, and were both negative in 25 cases. In six cases, a positive adenoid core culture was associated with a negative middle meatal culture. In five cases, a negative adenoid core culture was associated with a positive middle meatal culture (for one or more pathogenic species). Thus, adenoid core culture had a positive predictive value of 91.5 in forecasting the middle meatal culture result, and a negative predictive value of 84.3.
Apart from its effect on nasal airway patency, adenoidal tissue may function as a bacterial reservoir initiating and maintaining sinus infection in children. These study findings support a potential role for adenoidectomy in the treatment of chronic or recurrent paediatric sinusitis.
(1) To assess the prevalence of arytenoid asymmetry during adduction, and (2) to correlate arytenoid asymmetry with vocal symptoms.
Materials and method:
The medical records and video recordings of 116 patients who presented to the voice clinic were reviewed for the presence of arytenoid asymmetry, as regards sharpening of the aryepiglottic fold angle and altered positioning of the cuneiform and corniculate cartilages.
There were 61 males and 55 females, with a mean age of 39 years and a standard deviation of 15 years. Almost one-third had a history of reflux, 25 per cent had a history of smoking and 9.6 per cent had a history of allergy. Hoarseness was the most common symptom, occurring in 42.2 per cent of patients, followed by vocal fatigue (25 per cent) and inability to project the voice. The most common type of asymmetry was corniculate asymmetry, present in 27.6 per cent of the cases and accounting for 74.39 per cent of cases. This was followed by cuneiform cartilage asymmetry, present in 15.5 per cent of cases. There was no correlation between arytenoid asymmetry and vocal symptoms, except for vocal fatigue (p = 0.038).
The prevalence of arytenoid asymmetry during adduction is common. The presence of vocal symptoms such as hoarseness, breathiness, inability to project the voice and straining does not generally seem to correlate with the prevalence of arytenoid asymmetry. However, subjects with vocal fatigue are more likely to have cuneiform asymmetry.
To investigate the characteristics of the laryngeal mucosal microvascular network in suspected laryngeal cancer patients, using narrow band imaging, and to evaluate the value of narrow band imaging endoscopy in the early diagnosis of laryngeal precancerous and cancerous lesions.
Patients and methods:
Eighty-five consecutive patients with suspected precancerous or cancerous laryngeal lesions were enrolled in the study. Endoscopic narrow band imaging findings were classified into five types (I to V) according to the features of the mucosal intraepithelial papillary capillary loops assessed.
A total of 104 lesions (45 malignancies and 59 nonmalignancies) was detected under white light and narrow band imaging modes. The sensitivity and specificity of narrow band imaging in detecting malignant lesions were 88.9 and 93.2 per cent, respectively. The intraepithelial papillary capillary loop classification, as determined by narrow band imaging, was closely associated with the laryngeal lesions' histological findings. Type I to IV lesions were considered nonmalignant and type V lesions malignant. For type Va lesions, the sensitivity and specificity of narrow band imaging in detecting severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ were 100 and 79.5 per cent, respectively. In patients with type Vb and Vc lesions, the sensitivity and specificity of narrow band imaging in detecting invasive carcinoma were 83.8 and 100 per cent, respectively.
Narrow band imaging is a promising approach enabling in vivo differentiation of nonmalignant from malignant laryngeal lesions by evaluating the morphology of mucosal capillaries. These results suggest endoscopic narrow band imaging may be useful in the early detection of laryngeal cancer and precancerous lesions.
To study the role of mitomycin C in reducing keloid recurrence.
Prospective, randomised, controlled trial.
Tertiary care referral centre.
Case series of 20 patients presenting with 26 pinna swellings, mostly following ear piercing.
We used the technique of surgical shave excision combined with topical application of mitomycin C and secondary wound healing, in all 26 pinnae.
Patients were followed up six to 24 months post-operatively. No recurrences were noted during this period.
Keloids are fibrotic lesions resulting from abnormal wound healing. The uncontrolled proliferation of normal tissue healing processes results in scarring that enlarges well beyond the original wound margins. Successful treatment of keloids remains a challenge because this disease process has a high propensity for recurrence. Various therapies have previously been reported, and success rates are highly variable. We believe that shave excision followed by topical mitomycin C application is a promising treatment option for the management of pinna keloids.
Vascular rings are congenital vascular anomalies of the aortic arch complex which cause compression of the trachea and/or oesophagus. A variety of investigations may lead to diagnosis of these anomalies, including bronchoscopy and computed tomography. During the latter, image acquisition and processing use the multi-detector row technique and new reconstruction algorithms, producing high-resolution images which can be visualised as complex, three-dimensional renditions.
This study aimed to assess and compare the roles of bronchoscopy and multi-detector row computed tomography in the diagnosis of congenital vascular ring.
Patients and methods:
We included infants and children below the age of 16 years who presented with congenital vascular ring. All patients underwent rigid bronchoscopy under general anaesthesia, with spontaneous respiration. All computed tomography scans were obtained using a 16 multi-detector row computed tomography system, followed by data reconstruction on a three-dimensional workstation.
Ten patients with congenital vascular ring were identified (six boys and four girls). Fifty per cent of cases presented within the first year of life. Double aortic arch was the most common anomaly (40 per cent). Bronchoscopy detected external tracheal compression in nine cases (90 per cent). Associated airway lesions were detected endoscopically in three cases. In contrast, multi-detector row computed tomography detected the vascular ring in all cases, with accurate detection of the compressing vessel; however, it did not detect any associated airway lesions.
Bronchoscopy and radiological evaluation are essential for the diagnosis and pre-operative evaluation of congenital vascular ring. Multi-detector row computed tomography can provide more information about the nature of the disease, and can facilitate better communication between clinicians, compared with conventional computed tomography.
To describe a novel technique of delivering mitomycin C safely via endoscopic sinus surgery.
Mitomycin C was applied in the median frontal drainage pathway of a 44-year-old woman suffering from recalcitrant chronic frontal sinusitis. The mitomycin C was soaked onto a neurosurgical patty, which was delivered through a nasopharyngeal tube trimmed to ensure delivery directly to the desired area, thus sparing adjacent mucosa.
Mitomycin C has been suggested to have a useful role in reducing post-operative scarring after endonasal surgery. The long term safety of topical mitomycin C is not yet known, and inadvertent topical application to adjacent mucosa should be avoided. The described technique achieves this in a simple manner, and can be easily applied to other locations.
Cerebrospinal fluid leakage is the most common complication of endoscopic trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery. However, there is no uniformly accepted way of managing this complication when it occurs intra-operatively. This paper describes a quick, simple technique, involving layered fibrin glue and gelatin sponge, which does not compromise post-operative patient follow up.
Retrospective review of all endoscopic pituitary surgery cases conducted at a single institution since the introduction of this technique in 2002.
A total of 120 endoscopic pituitary operations were performed (96 primary procedures and 24 revisions). All intra-operative cerebrospinal fluid leaks were managed using the described method, with a failure rate of 3.6 per cent. The overall post-operative leakage rate was 1.7 per cent.
This simple, conservative technique avoids the need for further dissection and the use of non-absorbable foreign material, and has a low incidence of post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leakage.
To report outcomes for the first known cochlear implantation procedures in two patients with Brown–Vialetto–Van-Laere syndrome.
Two adult patients (a brother and sister) with post-lingual sensorineural deafness associated with Brown–Vialetto–Van-Laere syndrome. The female patient presented with a milder form of the syndrome.
Main outcome measure:
Post-implantation speech discrimination scores.
Auditory evoked potential testing suggested pathological changes in both patients' cochleae, auditory nerves, brainstem and (probably) central auditory pathways. In the male patient, despite implantation of the better ear, the Bamford–Kowal–Bench sentence score was zero at 21 months post-implantation. In the female patient, Bamford–Kowal–Bench sentence scores at six months post-implantation were 25 per cent in quiet and 3 per cent in noise.
These poor clinical outcomes appear to be related to retrocochlear and probable central auditory pathway degeneration.
The authors present an extremely rare case of carcinoma of the tympanic membrane.
A case report and review of the literature concerning carcinoma of the tympanic membrane and temporal bone are presented and discussed.
The authors present a patient with recurrent otorrhoea and an abnormal tympanic membrane. Biopsy was inconclusive, but resection demonstrated squamous cell carcinoma of the tympanic membrane. We also discuss the investigation, diagnosis, natural history and management of this rare condition, as well as the staging and management of tumours of the temporal bone and the differences between these closely related but prognostically different entities.
This rare entity can be managed by primary surgical resection if there is no evidence of metastasis.
We present an unusual case of parapharyngeal cerebrospinal fluid collection causing upper airway obstruction following a temporal bone fracture.
Case report and literature review of temporal bone fracture associated with parapharyngeal cerebrospinal fluid collection.
A 19-year-old man presented with cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea and temporal bone fracture following a head injury. He was discharged after 48 hours of observation. The patient returned within 6 hours with sudden unilateral neck swelling and stridor after blowing his nose. Flexible nasendoscopy and computed tomography showed extrinsic compression of the pharynx, with partial upper airway obstruction. A literature review using Pubmed™ and Medline™ identified no previously reported cases of parapharyngeal cerebrospinal fluid collection associated with temporal bone fracture.
This case illustrates a previously undescribed complication of temporal bone fracture. Raised intracranial pressure in the presence of a cerebrospinal fluid fistula may lead to airway obstruction, following temporal bone fracture.