Rhinosporidiosis primarily affects the mucous membranes of the nose and nasopharynx. The disseminated form of this chronic fungal disease is extremely rare.
The authors present a case of disseminated rhinosporidiosis in an immunocompetent patient with involvement of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscle, bone, penis and urethra, and with a long-standing primary lesion in the nose.
A late or atypical presentation of rhinosporidiosis may cause diagnostic dilemma. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the tumoural lesions may establish the diagnosis. Histopathology is confirmatory. The subcutaneous masses may be solid or cystic. Ulceroproliferative lesions need to be differentiated from malignancies.
This is the first reported case of truly disseminated rhinosporidiosis with simultaneous involvement of multiple anatomically unrelated sites in a single patient. This is also the first reported case of cystic rhinosporidiosis. The possibility and sequelae of spontaneous regression of rhinosporidiosis are also discussed.