Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768ffcd9cc-jpcp9 Total loading time: 0.208 Render date: 2022-12-02T10:52:58.826Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

The Cold War and the welfare state in divided Korea and Germany

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2020

Herbert Obinger*
Affiliation:
Center for Social Policy, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
Shinyong Lee
Affiliation:
Department of Social Welfare, Gyeongsang National University, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea
*
*Corresponding author. Email: hobinger@zes.uni-bremen.de

Abstract

Several scholars have hypothesized that the unprecedented expansion of the welfare state during the immediate post-war decades was to some degree related to fierce regime competition in the bipolar world that emerged in the aftermath of the Second World War. This paper uses the case study method to provide a more nuanced analysis of the causal mechanisms linking the Cold War and the welfare state. Focussing on Germany and Korea, which in methodological terms can be regarded as most-likely cases, we examine whether and, if so, to what extent the Cold War rivalry has influenced national social policy development in these divided countries. We argue that two causal mechanisms, competition and demarcation, were important in this respect. Both mechanisms were closely related to the need of governments to enhance regime legitimacy in a period of military tension and political conflict.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © 2013 Taylor & Francis

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Boyer, C. (2005). Verflechtung und Abgrenzung: Sozial- und konsumpolitische Beziehungen im RGW. In Hoffmann, D., & Schwartz, M. (Eds.), Sozialstaatlichkeit in der DDR. Sozialpolitische Entwicklungen im Spannungsfeld von Diktatur und Gesellschaft 1945/49–1989 (pp. 151174). Munich: Oldenbourg.Google Scholar
Boyer, C. (2009). Lange Entwicklungslinien europäischer Sozialpolitik im 20. Jahrhundert. Eine Annäherung. Archiv für Sozialgeschichte, 49, 2562.Google Scholar
Bundesagentur für vereinigungsbedingte Sonderaufgaben (ed.). (2003). “Schnell privatisieren, entschlossen, sanieren, behutsam stilllegen”. Ein Rückblick auf 13 Jahre Arbeit der Treuhandanstalt und der Bundesagentur für vereinigungsbedingte Sonderaufgaben. Berlin: Wegweiser GmbH.Google Scholar
Byun, C.-K. (2011). Park Chung Hee government's policies toward North Korea: Evaluation and implication. Unification Strategy, 11(2), 937. (변창구. 2011. 박정희 정부의 대북정책: 평가와 함의. 통일전략 11(2), 937).Google Scholar
Castles, F. G. (1986). Whatever happened to the communist welfare state? Studies in Comparative Communism, 19(3–4), 213226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cumings, B. (1981). The origins of the Korean war. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Goodman, R., White, G., & Kwon, H.-J. (1998). The East Asian welfare model. Welfare orientalism and the state. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Hobsbawm, E. (1990, October). Goodbye to all that. Marxism Today, pp. 1823.Google Scholar
Hockerts, H. G. (1994a). Soziale Errungenschaften? Zum sozialpolitischen Legitimitätsanspruch der zweiten deutschen Diktatur. In Kocka, J., Puhle, H.-J., & Tenfelde, K. (Eds.), Von der Arbeiterbewegung zum modernen Sozialstaat (pp. 790804). München: Saur.Google Scholar
Hockerts, H. G. (1994b). Grundlinien und soziale Folgen der Sozialpolitik in der DDR. In Kaelble, H., Kocka, J., & Zwahr, H. (Eds.), Sozialgeschichte der DDR (pp. 519544). Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.Google Scholar
Hockerts, H. G. (2009). West und Ost – Vergleich der Sozialpolitik in den beiden deutschen Staaten. Zeitschrift für Sozialreform, 55(1), 4156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holliday, I. (2000). Productivist welfare capitalism: Social policy in East Asia. Political Studies, 48, 706723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hunter, H.-L. (1999). Kim Il-song‘s North Korea. Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
Inglot, T. (2008). Welfare states in East Central Europe, 1919–2004. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Institute of Gyeongnam University for the Far East Affaires. (1993). The political economy of the building of socialism in North Korea. Masan: Gyeongnam University. (경남대학교극동문제연구소. 1993. 북한사회주의건설의 정치경제. 마산: 경남대학교).Google Scholar
Jeon, U.-S. (1994). Reappraisal of land policy under U.S. military administration since Korea independence from Japan. Journal of Social Science, 34, 97121. (전운성. 1994. 광복 후 미군정부의 토지정책에 관한 재평가. 강원대학교 논문집(사회과학연구), 34, 97121).Google Scholar
Joo, J. (1999). Explaining social policy adoption in South Korea: The cases of the medical insurance law and the minimum wage law. Journal of Social Policy, 28(3), 387412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, H.-S., & Jung, S.-T. (2011). Voice of Korea through Leaflets after Liberation. Seoul: Somoyng Press. (김현식·정선태. 2011. ‘삐라’로 듣는 해방 직후의 목소리. 서울: 소명출판사).Google Scholar
Kim, I. S. (1987). The complete works of Kim, Il Sung. Korean Worker's Party Press. (김일성. 1987b. 김일성전집35. 평양: 조선로동당출판사).Google Scholar
Kim, I. S. (1992a). The complete works of Kim, Il Sung. Pyongyang: Korean Worker's Party Press. (김일성. 1992a. 김일성전집2. 평양: 조선로동당출판사).Google Scholar
Kim, I. S. (1992b). The complete works of Kim, Il Sung. Pyongyang: Korean Worker's Party Press. (김일성. 1992b. 김일성전집3. 평양: 조선로동당출판사).Google Scholar
Kim, I. S. (1992c). The complete works of Kim, Il Sung. Pyongyang: Korean Worker's Party Press. (김일성. 1992c. 김일성전집4. 평양: 조선로동당출판사).Google Scholar
Kim, I. S. (1992d). The complete works of Kim, Il Sung. Pyongyang: Korean Worker's Party Press. (김일성. 1992d. 김일성전집5. 평양: 조선로동당출판사).Google Scholar
Kim, I. S. (1993). The complete works of Kim, Il Sung. Pyongyang: Korean Worker's Party Press. (김일성. 1993. 김일성전집7. 평양: 조선로동당출판사).Google Scholar
Kim, I. S. (1994a). The complete works of Kim, Il Sung. Pyongyang: Korean Worker's Party Press. (김일성. 1994a. 김일성전집9. 평양: 조선로동당출판사).Google Scholar
Kim, I. S. (1994b). The complete works of Kim, Il Sung. Pyongyang: Korean Worker's Party Press. (김일성. 1994b. 김일성전집10. 평양: 조선로동당출판사).Google Scholar
Kim, I. S. (1996). The complete works of Kim, Il Sung. Pyongyang: Korean Worker's Party Press. (김일성. 1996. 김일성전집14. 평양: 조선로동당출판사).Google Scholar
Kim, Y. M. (1993). Impact of the cold war on the formation of social welfare policy in South and North Korea: 1945–1990 (Thesis [what kind? Master's?]). Chung-Ang University, Seoul. (김연명. 1993. 한반도의 냉전체제가 남북한 사회복지에 미친 영향. 중앙대학교 박사학위논문).Google Scholar
Kim, Y. M. (2002). Social Policy of the Kim Dae Jung Government. In Kim, Y. M. (Ed.), Discussions on the characteristics of the Korean welfare state (pp. 111141). Seoul: Ingangwa Bokji. (김연명. 2002. 한국복지국가성격 논쟁. 인간과 복지).Google Scholar
Kim, Y. J. (2010). A study of the establishment of the welfare system and change of its character in North Korea. Ewha Womans University, Soul. (김연정. 2010. 북한 복지체제의 성립과 성격변화 연구. 이화여자대학교 박사학위 논문).Google Scholar
Kleßmann, C. (1991). Die doppelte Staatsgründung. Deutsche Geschichte 1945–1955. Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung.Google Scholar
Kwon, H.-J. (1999). The welfare state in Korea. The politics of legitimation. Houndmills: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lampert, H. (1989). Theorie und Praxis der Sozialpolitik der DDR (Arbeitsberichte zum Systemvergleich Nr. 13). Marburg: Forschungsstelle zum Vergleich wirtschaftlicher Lenkungssysteme der Universität Marburg.Google Scholar
Lemke, M. (2001). Einheit oder Sozialismus? Die Deutschlandpolitik der SED 1949–1961. Köln: Böhlau.Google Scholar
Lee, C.-S. (2004). North Korea social welfare: Anti welfare of North Korea. Pajoo: Chungmok. (이철수. 2004. 북한의 사회복지: 반복지의 북한. 파주: 청목).Google Scholar
Lee, J. H. (1990). The effects of economic growth on employment and distribution in Korea. Journal of Industrial Studies, 13, 157190. (이중희. 1990. 한국의 경제성장과 고용, 분배 및 후생. 산업연구, 13, 157190).Google Scholar
Lee, Y.-H. (1998). Aid Policy of U.S. Military Administration. In Rak, H. S. (Ed.), History of social welfare in Korea (pp. 423466). Seoul: Pakyong Press. (이영환. 1998. 미군정기의 구호정책. 하상락 편, 한국사회복지사론, 423–466, 서울: 박영사).Google Scholar
Maddison, A. (1995). Monitoring the world economy. 1820–1992. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
Mishra, R. (1993). Social policy in the postmodern world. The welfare state in Europe by comparison with North America. In Jones, C. (Ed.), Perspectives on the welfare state in Europe (pp. 1842). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Obinger, H., & Schmitt, C. (2011). Guns and butter? Regime competition and the welfare state during the Cold War. World Politics, 63(2), 246270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Obinger, H., Schmitt, C., & Starke, P. (2013). Policy diffusion and policy transfer in comparative welfare state research. Social Policy and Administration, 47(1), 111129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Park, C. H. (1973a). Park Chung Hee president speech collection 1. Seoul: Deahan Press. (박정희. 1973a. 박정희대통령 연설문집1. 대한공론사).Google Scholar
Park, C. H. (1973b). Park Chung Hee president speech collection 1. Seoul: Deahan Press. (박정희. 1973b. 박정희대통령 연설문집1. 대한공론사).Google Scholar
Park, M. J. (1990). The process of industrialization in North Korea (pp. 132172). Masan: Gyeongnam University, (박문정. 1990. 북한 공업의 전개과정, 경남대학교극동문제연구소 편, 북한경제의 전개과정, 132–172, 마산: 경남대학교).Google Scholar
Park, S. S. (2003). The economy of North Korea and unification of the Korean Peninsula. Seoul: Pulbik. (박순성. 2003. 북한 경제와 한반도 통일. 서울: 풀빛).Google Scholar
Petersen, K. (2012). The Welfare State and the early Cold War. A discussion of possible links. Paper presented at the conference “The Cold War and the Welfare State”, Alfred Nobel Institute, Oslo.Google Scholar
Ritter, G. (2005). Thesen zur Sozialpolitik in der DDR. In Hoffmann, D., & Schwartz, M. (Eds.), Sozialstaatlichkeit in der DDR. Sozialpolitische Entwicklungen im Spannungsfeld von Diktatur und Gesellschaft 1945/49–1989 (pp. 1130). München: Oldenbourg.Google Scholar
Rosenberg, H. (1976). Grosse Depression und Bismarckzeit. Wirtschaftsablauf, Gesellschaft und Politik in Mitteleuropa. Frankfurt am Main: Ullstein.Google Scholar
Scharpf, F. W. (2004). Legitimationskonzepte jenseits des Nationalstaates, Working Paper 04/6, Max Planck Institut für Gesellschaftsforschung, Cologne.Google Scholar
Schmidt, Manfred G. (2001). Grundlagen der Sozialpolitik in der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. In Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung und Bundesarchiv (Eds.), Geschichte der Sozialpolitik in Deutschland seit 1945 (Vol. 1, pp. 689798). Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
Schmidt, M. G. (2012). Legitimation durch Performanz? Zur Output-Legitimität von Autokratien. Totalitarismus und Demokratie, 9(1), 83100.Google Scholar
Schulz, G. (2005a). Rahmenbedingungen. In Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales und Bundesarchiv (Eds.), Geschichte der Sozialpolitik in Deutschland. Bundesrepublik Deutschland. (Vol. 3, pp. 372). Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
Schulz, G. (2005b). Sozialpolitische Denk- und Handlungsfelder. In Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales & Bundesarchiv (Eds.), Geschichte der Sozialpolitik in Deutschland. Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Vol. 3, pp. 76176). Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
Seo, N. W. (1963). Management of Foreign Aid to Korea. Asia Study, 6(2), 2963. (서남원. 1963. 한국에 대한 외국원조의 관리. 아세아연구, 6(2), 2963).Google Scholar
Shin, S.-J. (1992). Basic welfare policy of United States army military government in Korea. Journal of Public Welfare Administration, 2, 565. (신상준. 1992. 주한미군정청의 복지정책기조. 복지행정논총, 2, 565).Google Scholar
Stöver, B. (2007). Der Kalte Krieg 1947–1991. Geschichte eines radikalen Zeitalters. Munich: C.H. Beck.Google Scholar
Trenk-Hinterberger, P. (2007). Sozialhilfe. In Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales und Bundesarchiv, Geschichte der Sozialpolitik in Deutschland (Vol. 4, pp. 505548). Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
Weber, M. (1985). Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft. Stuttgart: J. Mohr.Google Scholar
Wentker, H. (2003). Die gesamtdeutsche Systemkonkurrenz und die durchlässige innerdeutsche Grenze. In Hoffmann, D., Schwartz, M., & Wentker, H. (Eds.), Vor dem Mauerbau. Politik und Gesellschaft in der DDR der fünfziger Jahre (pp. 5975). München: Oldenbourg.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Willing, M. (2005). Fürsorge. In Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales & Bundesarchiv (Eds.), Geschichte der Sozialpolitik in Deutschland (Vol. 3, pp. 561596). Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
Wintrobe, R. (1998). The political economy of dictatorship. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
1
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The Cold War and the welfare state in divided Korea and Germany
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

The Cold War and the welfare state in divided Korea and Germany
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

The Cold War and the welfare state in divided Korea and Germany
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *