Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-7x8lp Total loading time: 0.251 Render date: 2021-03-02T15:15:26.944Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Childcare deserts and distributional disadvantages: the legacies of split childcare policies and programmes in Canada

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2020

Susan Prentice
Affiliation:
Department of Sociology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
Linda A. White
Affiliation:
Department of Political Science and School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Corresponding

Abstract

Early childhood education and care (ECEC) policies and services in Canada exhibit marked gaps in access, creating ‘childcare deserts’ and distributional disadvantages. Cognate family policies that support children and families, such as parental leave and child benefits, are also underdeveloped. This article examines the current state of ECEC services in Canada and the reasons behind the uncoordinated array of services and policy, namely, a liberal welfare state tradition that historically has encouraged private and market-based care, a comparatively decentralised federal system that militates against coordinated policy-making, and a welfare state built on gendered assumptions about care work. The article assesses recent government initiatives, including the federal 2017 Multilateral Framework on Early Learning and Child Care, concluding that existing federal and provincial initiatives have limited potential to bring about paradigmatic third-order change.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Banting, K., & Myles, J. (2013). Introduction. In Banting, K., & Myles, J. (Eds.), Inequality and the fading of redistributive politics (pp. 142). Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
Bassok, D., Fitzpatrick, M., Greenberg, E., & Loeb, S. (2016). Within- and between-sector quality differences in early childhood education and care. Child Development, 87(5), 16271645.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beach, J., & Friendly, M. (2005). Child care fee subsidies in Canada. Retrieved from http://www.childcarequality.ca/wdocs/QbD_FeeSubsidies_Canada.pdfGoogle Scholar
Brodie, J. (2010). The 3Ds of the Canadian Women's Movement: Delegitimization, dismantling and disappearance. Retrieved from http://www.idees-ideas.ca/blog/3ds-canadian-womens-movement-delegitimization-dismantling-and-disappearanceGoogle Scholar
Budig, M. J., Misra, J., & Boeckmann, I. (2016). Work–family policy trade-offs for mothers? Unpacking the cross-national variation in motherhood earnings penalties. Work and Occupations, 43(2), 119177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Card, D., Lemieux, T., & Riddell, W. (2004). Unions and wage inequality. Journal of Labor Research, 25(4), 519559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
CCAAC. (2017). Ten year framework agreement falls short [Press release]. Retrieved from https://timeforchildcare.ca/2017/06/12/for-immediate-release/Google Scholar
Christie, N. (2000). Engendering the state: Family, work and welfare in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cleveland, G., Forer, B., Hyatt, D., Japel, C., & Krashinsky, M. (2008). New evidence about child care in Canada: Use patterns. Affordability and quality. IRPP Choices, 14(2), 242.Google Scholar
Cleveland, G., Krashinsky, M., Colley, S., & Avery-Nunez, C. (2016). City of Toronto licensed child care demand and affordability study. Retrieved from https://www1.toronto.ca/CityOfToronto/Children'sServices/Files/pdf/T/TorontoDemand&AffordabilityStudy2016.pdfGoogle Scholar
Doherty, G., Lero, D., Goelman, H., Tougas, J., & LaGrange, A. (2000). You bet I care! Caring and learning environments: Quality in regulated family child care across Canada. Retrieved from http://www.worklifecanada.ca/cms/resources/files/5/ybic_report_3.pdfGoogle Scholar
Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
Ferns, C., & Friendly, M. (2015). Background paper on unregulated child care for the home child care: More than a home project (Occasional Paper No. 28). Retrieved from http://childcarecanada.org/sites/default/files/Occasionalpaper28.pdfGoogle Scholar
Fortin, P. (2018). Québec's childcare program at 20. Inroads: The Canadian Journal of Opinion, 42, 5264.Google Scholar
Fortin, P., & St-Cerny, S. (2012). Lessons from Québec's universal low-fee childcare programme. Juncture: IPPR.Google Scholar
Friendly, M., Larsen, E., Feltham, L., Grady, B., Forer, B., & Jones, M. (2018). Early childhood education and care in Canada 2016. Toronto: Childcare Resource and Research Unit.Google Scholar
Friendly, M., & Prentice, S. (2009). About Canada: Childcare. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing.Google Scholar
Government of Canada. (2017a). More choice and flexibility for families and caregivers, starting December 3, 2017 [Press release]. Retrieved from https://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/more-choice-and-flexibility-for-families-and-caregivers-starting-december-3-2017-656401883.htmlGoogle Scholar
Government of Canada. (2017b). Multilateral early learning and child care framework. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/programs/early-learning-child-care/reports/2017-multilateral-framework.htmlGoogle Scholar
Government of Canada. (2018). EI maternity and parental benefits – overview. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/services/benefits/ei/ei-maternity-parental.htmlGoogle Scholar
Hall, P. (1993). Policy paradigms, social learning and the state: The case of economic policymaking in Britain. Comparative Politics, 25(3), 275296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, P., & Soskice, D. (2001). Varieties of capitalism: The institutional foundations of comparative advantage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hertzman, C. (2004). Making early childhood development a priority. Retrieved from https://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/BC_Office_Pubs/early_childhood.pdfGoogle Scholar
Hertzman, C., McLean, S., Kohen, D., Dunn, J., & Evans, T. (2002). Early development in Vancouver: Report of the Community Asset Mapping Project (CAMP). Vancouver: Human Early Learning Partnership and Canadian Population Health Institute. Retrieved from https://secure.cihi.ca/free_products/ecd_van_e.pdfGoogle Scholar
Institut de la Statistique du Québec. (2011). Enquête sur l'utilisation, les besoins et les préférences des familles en matière de services de garde, 2009 : Portrait québeçois et régional. Retrieved from http://www.stat.gouv.qc.ca/statistiques/education/milieu-garde/utilisation-services-garde.html.Google Scholar
Iversen, T., & Soskice, D. (2009). Distribution and redistribution: The shadow of the nineteenth century. World Politics, 61(3), 438486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iversen, T., & Stephens, J. (2008). Partisan politics, the welfare state, and three worlds of human capital formation. Comparative Political Studies, 41(4–5), 600637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Japel, C., Tremblay, R., & Côté, S. (2005). Quality counts! Assessing the quality of daycare services based on the Quebec longitudinal study of child development. IRPP Choices, 11(5), 342.Google Scholar
Japel, C., & Welp, C. (2009). Lessons to be learned from Québec's child care system. Our Schools/Our Selves, 18(3), 5765.Google Scholar
Langford, R., Prentice, S., & Albanese, P. (2017). Caring for children: Social movements and public policy in Canada. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
Liberal Party of Canada. (2016). Real change: An historic investment plan to strengthen the middle class, create jobs, and grow our economy. Retrieved from https://www.liberal.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/An-historic-investment-plan.pdfGoogle Scholar
Macdonald, D., & Friendly, M. (2017). Time out: Child care fees in Canada 2017. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.Google Scholar
Macdonald, D., & Klinger, T. (2015). They go up so fast: 2015 child care fees in Canadian cities. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.Google Scholar
Mahon, R. (2006). Of scalar hierarchies and welfare redesign: Child care in three Canadian cities. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 31(4), 452466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mahon, R., Bergqvist, C., & Brennan, D. (2016). Social policy change: Work-family tensions in Sweden, Australia and Canada. Social Policy & Administration, 50(2), 165182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malik, R., & Hamm, K. (2017). Mapping America's child care deserts. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.Google Scholar
Manitoba Child Care Association. (2016). Parent survey: Final report. Retrieved from http://mccahouse.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Parent-Survey-Final-Report.pdfGoogle Scholar
Marshall, K. (2003). Benefiting from extended parental leave. Perspectives on Labour and Income: On-line Edition, 4(3), 512.Google Scholar
Marshall, K. (2010). Employer top ups. Perspectives, 512. Catalogue no. 75-001-X.Google Scholar
McGrane, D. (2010). Diverging paths? A classification of the childcare regimes of Canadian provinces. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of Prairie Political Science Association, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.Google Scholar
McKay, L., Mathieu, S., & Doucet, A. (2016). Parental-leave rich and parental-leave poor: Inequality in Canadian labour market based leave policies. Journal of Industrial Relations, 58(4), 543562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKie, D. (2017). Many Indigenous families not applying for Canada Child Benefit: Documents: Thousands of dollars available, but tax filing necessary before it can be collected. On CBC News Politics. Ottawa: CBC.Google Scholar
Mocan, N. (2007). Can consumers detect lemons? An empirical analysis of information asymmetry in the market for child care. Journal of Population Economics, 20(4), 743780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morgan, K. (2005). The ‘production’ of child care: How labor markets shape social policy and vice versa. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, 12(2), 243263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mowat Centre. (2015). Renewing Canada's social architecture. Retrieved from http://social-architecture.caGoogle Scholar
Office of the Parliamentary Budget Officer. (2016). Fiscal analysis of federal children's benefits. Retrieved from http://www.pbo-dpb.gc.ca/web/default/files/Documents/Reports/2016/CCB/CCB_EN.pdfGoogle Scholar
Oliver, R., & Mätzke, M. (2014). Childcare expansion in conservative welfare states: Policy legacies and the politics of decentralized implementation in Germany and Italy. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society, 21(2), 167193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ontario Office of the Premier. (2018). More child care, more choice: Providing free preschool child care for children aged 2.5 to kindergarten [Press release]. Retrieved from https://news.ontario.ca/opo/en/2018/03/more-child-care-more-choice.htmlGoogle Scholar
Pavolini, E., & Van Lancker, W. (2018). The Matthew effect in childcare use: A matter of policies or preferences? Journal of European Public Policy, 25(6), 878893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Porter, A. (2015). Austerity. Social program restructuring, and the erosion of democracy: Examining the, 2012. Employment insurance reforms. Canadian Review of Social Policy/Revue canadienne de politique sociale, 71(1), 2152.Google Scholar
Prentice, S. (2004). Manitoba's childcare regime: Social liberalism in flux. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 29(2), 193207.Google Scholar
Prentice, S. (2006). Childcare, co-production and the third sector in Canada. Public Management Review, 8(4), 521536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prentice, S. (2007). Childcare, justice and the city: A case study of planning failure in Winnipeg. Canadian Journal of Urban Research, 16(1), 92108.Google Scholar
Robson, J. (2017). Parental benefits in Canada: Which way forward? IRRP Study, 63, 146.Google Scholar
Sosinsky, L., Lord, H., & Zigler, E. (2007). For-profit/nonprofit differences in center-based child care quality: Results from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28(5), 390410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Streeck, W., & Thelen, K. (2005). Institutional change in advanced political economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
UNICEF. (2008). The child care transition: A league table of early childhood education and care in economically advanced countries. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.Google Scholar
Van Lancker, W., & Ghysels, J. (2012). Who benefits? The social distribution of subsidized childcare in Sweden and Flanders. Acta Sociologica, 55(2), 125142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van Lancker, W., & Ghysels, J. (2016). Explaining patterns of inequality in childcare service use across 31 developed economies: A welfare state perspective. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 57(5), 310337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Varmuza, P., Perlman, M., & White, L. (2018). Understanding unlicensed child care utilization in Canada: Implications for demand and oversight.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
White, L. (2017). Constructing policy change: Early childhood education and care in liberal welfare states. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
White, L., & Friendly, M. (2012). Public funding, private delivery: States, markets, and early childhood education and care in liberal welfare states – a comparison of Australia, the UK, Quebec, and New Zealand. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 14(4), 292310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 110
Total number of PDF views: 255 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 09th March 2020 - 2nd March 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Childcare deserts and distributional disadvantages: the legacies of split childcare policies and programmes in Canada
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Childcare deserts and distributional disadvantages: the legacies of split childcare policies and programmes in Canada
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Childcare deserts and distributional disadvantages: the legacies of split childcare policies and programmes in Canada
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *