Skip to main content Accessibility help

Schistosoma haematobium infections in preschool children from two rural communities in Ijebu East, south-western Nigeria

  • U.F. Ekpo (a1), O.M. Alabi (a1), A.S. Oluwole (a1) and S.O. Sam-Wobo (a1)


There is an urgent need for information on schistosomiasis in preschool children, who are often excluded in mass treatment programmes. The prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection were determined in preschool children aged ≤ 6 years in two rural communities in Ijebu East, south-western Nigeria. Two urine samples each were collected from 83 preschool children from the two communities, tested for microhaematuria using reagent strips and then processed and examined with a microscope for S. haematobium eggs. Focus group discussions on perceptions of the disease and water contact practices were held in the communities with their guardians, caregivers and preschool children, using an interview guide. The prevalence of S. haematobium in the two communities was 14 (16.9%), with no significant differences (P = 0.661) in infection rate between boys (18.4%) and girls (14.7%). Both prevalence and intensity of infection did not increase significantly with age in both Korede and Obada community. However, there were significant differences in prevalence of infection between the two communities (P = 0.035). There was no association (P = 0.750) between intensity in boys (0.176 eggs/10 ml urine) and girls (0.110 eggs/10 ml urine). Focal group discussions with guardians and caregivers revealed that preschool children acquired infection early in their lives through exposure to infected stream water by their mothers, while the older children visit the stream for playing, bathing and swimming. It has therefore become imperative for preschool children to be included in the planning of schistosomiasis intervention programmes as a means of reducing transmission.


Corresponding author


Hide All
Akogun, O.B. & Akogun, M.K. (1996) Human behaviour, water usage and schistosomiasis transmission in small settlement near Yola, Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 90, 303311.
Anosike, J.C., Nwoke, B.E.B. & Njoku, A.J. (2001) The validity of haematuria in the community diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis infections. Journal of Helminthology 75, 223225.
Bosompem, K.M., Bentum, I.R., Otchere, J., Anyan, W.K., Brown, C.A., Osada, Y., Takeo, S., Kojima, S. & Ohta, N. (2004) Infant schistosomiasis in Ghana: a survey in an irrigation community. Tropical Medicine & International Health 9, 917922.
Chitsulo, L., Engels, D., Montresor, A. & Savioli, L. (2000) The global status of schistosomiasis and its control. Acta Tropica 77, 4151.
Ekpo, U.F. & Mafiana, C.F. (2004) Epidemiological studies of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, Nigeria: identification of high-risk communities. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology 25, 111119.
Ekpo, U.F., Laja-Deile, A., Oluwole, A.S., Sam-Wobo, S.O. & Mafiana, C.F. (2010) Urinary schistosomiasis among preschool children in a rural community near Abeokuta, Nigeria. Parasites & Vectors 3, 58.
French, M.D., Rollinson, D., Basáñez, M.G., Mgeni, A.F., Khami, I.S. & Stothard, J.R. (2007) School-based control of urinary schistosomiasis on Zanzibar, Tanzania: monitoring micro-haematuria with reagent strips as a rapid urological assessment. Journal of Pediatric Urology 3, 364368.
Garba, A., Barkiré, N., Djibo, A., Lamine, M.S., Sofo, B., Gouvras, A.N., Bosqué-Oliva, E., Joanne, P., Webster, J.P., Stothard, J.R., Utzinger, J. & Fenwick, A. (2010) Schistosomiasis in infants and preschool-aged children: infection in a single Schistosoma haematobium and a mixed S. haematobiumS. mansoni focus of Niger. Acta Tropica 115, 212219.
Gryseels, B., Polman, K., Clerinx, J. & Kestens, L. (2006) Human schistosomiasis. Lancet 368, 11061118.
Guyatt, H., Brooker, S., Lwambo, N.J.S., Siza, J.E. & Bundy, D.A.P. (1999) The performance of school-based questionnaires of reported blood in urine in diagnosing Schistosoma haematobium infection: patterns by age and sex. Tropical Medicine and International Health 4, 751757.
Hammad, T.A., Gabr, N.S., Talaat, M.M., Orieby, A., Shawky, E. & Strickland, G.T. (1997) Haematuria and proteinuria as predictors of Schistosoma haematobium infection. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 57, 363367.
Hotez, P.J. & Kamath, A. (2009) Neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and disease burden. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 3, e412.
Lengeler, C., Mshinda, H., Morona, D. & deSavigny, D. (1993) Urinary schistosomiasis: testing with urine filtration and reagent sticks for haematuria provides a comparable estimate. Acta Tropica 53, 3950.
Lengeler, C., Utzinger, J. & Tanner, M. (2002) Questionnaires for rapid screening of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 80, 235242.
Mafe, M.A. (1997) The diagnostic potential of three indirect tests for urinary schistosomiasis in Nigeria. Acta Tropica 68, 277284.
Mafe, M.A., von Stamm, T., Utzinger, J., Goran, E.K. & Goran, N. (2000) Control of urinary schistosomiasis: an investigation into the effective use of questionnaires to identify high-risk communities and individuals in Niger State, Nigeria. Tropical Medicine and International Health 5, 5363.
Mafiana, C.F., Ekpo, U.F. & Ojo, D.A. (2003) Urinary schistosomiasis in preschool children in settlements around Oyan Reservoir in Ogun State, Nigeria: implications for control. Tropical Medicine & International Health 8, 7882.
Mathers, C.D., Ezzati, M. & Lopez, A.D. (2007) Measuring the burden of neglected tropical diseases: the global burden of disease framework. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 1, e114.
Mott, K.E., Dixon, H., Osei-Tutu, E., England, E.C., Ekue, K. & Tekle, A. (1985) Evaluation of the reagent strips in urine tests for detection of Schistosoma haematobium infection: a comparative study in Ghana and Zambia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 63, 125133.
Odogwu, S.E., Ramamurthy, N.K., Kabatereine, N.B., Kazibwe, F., Tukahebwa, E., Webster, J.P., Fenwick, A. & Stothard, J.R. (2006) Schistosoma mansoni in infants (aged < 3 years) along the Ugandan shoreline of Lake Victoria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 100, 315326.
Ofoezie, I.E., Christensen, N.O. & Madsen, H. (1998) Water contact patterns of infection with Schistosoma haematobium in lakeside resettlement communities at the Oyan reservoir in Ogun State, South-Western Nigeria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 91, 187197.
Opara, K.N., Udoidung, N.I. & Ukpong, I.G. (2007) Genitourinary schistosomiasis among pre-primary school children in a rural community within the Cross River Basin, Nigeria. Journal of Helminthology 81, 393397.
Savioli, L., Hatz, C., Dixon, H., Kisumku, U.M. & Mott, K.E. (1990) Control of morbidity due to Schistosoma haematobium on Pemba Island: egg excretion and haematuria as indicators of infection. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 43, 289295.
Sousa-Figueiredo, J.C., Pleasant, J., Matthew, D.M., Betson, M., Rollinson, D., Montresor, A., Kazibwe, F., Kabatereine, N.B. & Stothard, J.R. (2010a) Treatment of intestinal schistosomiasis in Ugandan preschool children: best diagnosis, treatment efficacy and side-effects, and an extended praziquantel dosing pole. International Health 2, 103113.
Sousa-Figueiredo, J.C., Day, M., Betson, M., Kabatereine, N.B. & Stothard, J.R. (2010b) An inclusive dose pole for treatment of schistosomiasis in infants and preschool children with praziquantel. Transactions of the Royal Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 104, 740742.
Steinmann, P., Keiser, J., Bos, R., Tanner, M. & Utzinger, J. (2006) Schistosomiasis and water resources development: systematic review, meta analysis and estimates of people at risk. Lancet Infectious Diseases 6, 411425.
Stothard, J.R. & Gabrielli, A.F. (2007) Schistosomiasis in African infants and preschool children: to treat or not to treat? Trends in Parasitology 23, 8386.
Stothard, J.R., Chitsulo, L., Kristensen, T.K. & Utzinger, J. (2009) Control of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa: progress made, new opportunities and remaining challenges. Parasitology 136, 16651675.
Ugbomoiko, U.S., Dalumo, V., Ariza, L., Bezerra, S.F.M. & Heukelbach, J. (2009) A simple approach improving the performance of urine reagent strips for rapid diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis in Nigerian schoolchildren. Memorias Institute Oswaldo Cruz 104, 456461.
Van der Werf, M.J., de Vlas, S.J., Brooker, S., Looman, C.W.N., Nagelkerke, N.J.D., Habbema, J.D.F. & Engels, D. (2003) Quantification of clinical morbidity associated with schistosome infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Acta Tropica 86, 125139.
WHO (1985) The control of schistosomiasis. Report of a WHO Expert Committee, Technical Report Series 728. Geneva, WHO.
WHO (1993) The control of schistosomiasis. Report of the WHO Expert Committee, Technical Report Series 830. Geneva, WHO.
WHO (2002) Prevention and control of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminithiasis. Report of the WHO Expert Committee, Technical Report Series 912. Geneva, WHO.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Schistosoma haematobium infections in preschool children from two rural communities in Ijebu East, south-western Nigeria

  • U.F. Ekpo (a1), O.M. Alabi (a1), A.S. Oluwole (a1) and S.O. Sam-Wobo (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.