Skip to main content Accessibility help

Molecular identification of species of Taenia causing bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia

  • Z. Hailemariam (a1), M. Nakao (a2), S. Menkir (a3), A. Lavikainen (a4), T. Iwaki (a5), T. Yanagida (a2), M. Okamoto (a6) and A. Ito (a2)...


Bovine cysticercosis causing damage to the beef industry is closely linked to human taeniasis due to Taenia saginata. In African countries, Taenia spp. from wildlife are also involved as possible sources of infections in livestock. To identify the aetiological agents of bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia, cysticerci were collected from 41 cattle slaughtered in the eastern and central areas during 2010–2012. A single cysticercus per animal was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the resultant sequence was compared with those of members of the genus Taenia. Although 38 out of 41 cysticerci (92.7%) were identified as T. saginata, three samples (7.3%) showed the hitherto unknown sequences of Taenia sp., which is distantly related to Taenia solium, Taenia arctos and Taenia ovis. Old literatures suggest it to be Taenia hyaenae, but morphological identification of species could not be completed by observing only the larval samples.


Corresponding author


Hide All
Abunna, F., Tilahun, G., Megersa, B. & Regassa, A. (2007) Taeniasis and its socioeconomic implications in Awassa town and its surroundings, Southern Ethiopia. East African Journal of Public Health 4, 7379.
Baer, J.G. (1926) Contributions on the helminth-fauna of South Africa. Reports of the Director of Veterinary Education and Research 11–12, pp. 63–136. Pretoria, Deparment of Agriculture, South Africa.
Bowles, J. & McManus, D.P. (1994) Genetic characterization of the Asian Taenia, a newly described taeniid cestode of humans. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 50, 3344.
Flisser, A., Correa, D., Avilla, G. & Marvilla, P. (2005) Biology of Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia saginata asiatica . pp. 18 in Murrell, K.D. (Ed.) WHO/FAO/OIE guidelines for the surveillance, prevention and control of taeniosis/cysticercosis. Paris, WHO.
Galimberti, A., Romano, D.F., Genchi, M., Paoloni, D., Vercillo, F., Bizzarri, L., Sassera, D., Bandi, C., Genchi, C., Ragni, B. & Casiraghi, M. (2012) Integrative taxonomy at work: DNA barcoding of taeniids harboured by wild and domestic cats. Molecular Ecology Resources 12, 403413.
Gasser, R.B., Zhu, X. & McManus, D.P. (1999) NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences compared for members of the genus Taenia (Cestoda). International Journal for Parasitology 29, 19651970.
Giesecke, W.H. (1997) Prevalence and economic implications of taeniasis/cysticercosis in South Africa. Report on a Workshop held at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Onderstepoort, South Africa, 18–19 August 1997, pp. 19–70.
Graber, M. (1978) À propos de la cysticercose musculaire des ruminants sauvages et domestiques d'Ethiopie. Revue d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux 31, 3337.
Hailemariam, Z., Nakao, M., Menkir, S., Lavikainen, A., Yanagida, T., Okamoto, M. & Ito, A. (2012) Molecular identification of unilocular hydatid cysts from domestic ungulates in Ethiopia: implications for human infections. Parasitology International 61, 375377.
Haukisalmi, V., Lavikainen, A., Laaksonen, S. & Meri, S. (2011) Taenia arctos n. sp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) from its definitive (brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus) and intermediate (moose/elk Alces spp.) hosts. Systematic Parasitology 80, 217230.
Hoberg, E.P. (2006) Phylogeny of Taenia: species definitions and origins of human parasites. Parasitology International 55, S23S30.
Hoberg, E.P., Alkire, N.L., de Queiroz, A. & Jones, A. (2001) Out of Africa: origins of the Taenia tapeworms in humans. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 268, 781787.
Jia, W.Z., Yan, H.B., Guo, A.J., Zhu, X.Q., Wang, Y.C., Shi, W.G., Chen, H.T., Zhan, F., Zhang, S.H., Fu, B.Q., Littlewood, D.T. & Cai, X.P. (2010) Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis: additional molecular markers for a tapeworm genus of human and animal health significance. BMC Genomics 11, 447.
Jones, A. & Pybus, M.J. (2001) Taeniasis and echinococcosis. pp. 150192 in Samuel, W.M., Pybus, M.J. & Kocan, A.A. (Eds) Parasitic diseases of wild mammals. 2nd edn. London, Manson Publishing.
Kimura, M. (1980) A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution 16, 111120.
Kumar, A. & Tadesse, G. (2011) Bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia: a review. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal 15, 1535.
Lavikainen, A., Haukisalmi, V., Lehtinen, M.J., Henttonen, H., Oksanen, A. & Meri, S. (2008) A phylogeny of members of the family Taeniidae based on the mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 gene data. Parasitology 135, 14571467.
Lavikainen, A., Laaksonen, S., Beckmen, K., Oksanen, A., Isomursu, M. & Meri, S. (2011) Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in wolves (Canis lupus), brown bears (Ursus arctos) and cervids from North Europe and Alaska. Parasitology International 60, 289295.
Liu, G.H., Lin, R.Q., Li, M.W., Liu, W., Liu, Y., Yuan, Z.G., Song, H.Q., Zhao, G.H., Zhang, K.X. & Zhu, X.Q. (2011) The complete mitochondrial genomes of three cestode species of Taenia infecting animals and humans. Molecular Biology Reports 38, 22492256.
Loos-Frank, B. (2000) An up-date of Verster's (1969) 'Taxonomic revision of the genus Taenia Linnaeus' (Cestoda) in table format. Systematic Parasitology 45, 155183.
Mettrick, D.F. (1963) Some trematodes and cestodes from mammals of Central Africa. Revista de Biologia Lisboa 3, 149170.
Ministry of Agriculture (1972) Meat Inspection Regulations Legal notice No. 428 Negarite Gazexa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Ministry of Agriculture.
Ortlepp, R.J. (1938) South African helminthes – Part II. Some Taenias from large wild carnivores. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Industry 10, 253278.
Regassa, A., Abunna, F., Mulugeta, A. & Megersa, B. (2009) Major metacestodes in cattle slaughtered at Wolaita Soddo Municipal abattoir, Southern Ethiopia: prevalence, cyst viability, organ distribution and socioeconomic implications. Tropical Animal Health and Production 41, 14951502.
Rossin, M.A., Timi, J.T. & Hoberg, E.P. (2010) An endemic Taenia from South America: validation of T. talicei Dollfus, 1960 (Cestoda: Taeniidae) with characterization of metacestodes and adults. Zootaxa 2636, 4958.
Saitou, N. & Nei, M. (1987) The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 4, 406425.
Tamura, K., Peterson, D., Peterson, N., Stecher, G., Nei, M. & Kumar, S. (2011) MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28, 27312739.
Verster, A. (1969) A taxonomic revision of the genus Taenia Linnaeus, 1758 s. str. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 36, 358.
Yoder, D.R., Ebel, E.D., Hancock, D.D. & Combs, B.A. (1994) Epidemiologic findings from an outbreak of cysticercosis in feedlot cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 205, 4550.
Zhang, L., Hu, M., Jones, A., Allsopp, B.A., Beveridge, I., Schindler, A.R. & Gasser, R.B. (2007) Characterization of Taenia madoquae and Taenia regis from carnivores in Kenya using genetic markers in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, and their relationships with other selected taeniids. Molecular and Cellular Probes 21, 379385.

Molecular identification of species of Taenia causing bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia

  • Z. Hailemariam (a1), M. Nakao (a2), S. Menkir (a3), A. Lavikainen (a4), T. Iwaki (a5), T. Yanagida (a2), M. Okamoto (a6) and A. Ito (a2)...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed