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Levels of infection of gastric nematodes in a flock of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from Lake Biwa, Japan

  • Kh.M. El-Dakhly (a1) (a2), E. El-Nahass (a1) (a3), S. Uni (a4), H. Tuji (a1), H. Sakai (a1) and T. Yanai (a1)...

Abstract

A high prevalence (86.7%) of various species of nematodes was observed in the stomach of great cormorants living in Lake Biwa, Japan. There were varying numbers of adults belonging to two common genera, Eustrongylides Jagerskiold 1909 (Nematoda: Dioctophymatidae) and Contracaecum Railliet & Henry 1912 (Nematoda: Anisakidae). The first included common adenophorean nematodes comprising a single species, Eustrongylides tubifex and the second comprised ascaroid nematodes that contained four named species: Contracaecum rudolphii Hartwich, 1964, Contracaecum microcephalum Yamaguti, 1961, Contracaecum multipapillatum Drasche, 1882 and Contracaecum chubutensis Garbin, 2008. After the prevalence and intensity of the infection had been noted, both types of nematodes were frequently observed to penetrate the mucosa and intrude into the wall of the glandular stomach, where they caused gross haemorrhage and ulceration. The Eustrongylides sp. was predominantly found in a nodular lesion of the proventricular wall, while Contracaecum spp. were observed either free in the lumen of the proventriculus or, on occasion, deeply penetrating its wall. Of the Contracaecum spp., C. rudolphii was the most prevalent. Grossly, large numbers of nematodes were present in infected stomachs (for C. rudolphii intensity was 1–34 and 3–57 nematodes in male birds and 1–21 and 1–32 in females; for C. microcephalum 1–2 and 1 in male birds and 1–2 in females; for C. multipapillatum 2 in male cormorants and no infection in females; for C. chubutensis 1–2 and 1 in male birds and 1–5 and 1 in females and for E. tubifex 1–5 nematodes in male birds and 2–8 in females). Ulcerative inflammation and hyperaemia were the most common pathological presentations, especially in areas that had been invaded by parasites. Microscopically, varying degrees of granulomatous inflammatory reactions were seen, in addition to degenerated nematodes which appeared to have deeply penetrated mucosal surfaces and were surrounded by fibrous connective tissues.

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*Fax: +81-58-293-2943 E-mail: yanai@gifu-u.ac.jp

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