Skip to main content Accessibility help

Lack of negative effects of the biological control agent Duddingtonia flagrans on soil nematodes and other nematophagous fungi

  • C.A. Saumell (a1), A.S. Fernández (a1), F. Echevarria (a2), I. Gonçalves (a2), L. Iglesias (a1), M.F. Sagües (a1) and E.M. Rodríguez (a3)...


The possible environmental effects of the massive use of Duddingtonia flagrans for controlling sheep nematodes were evaluated in two regions. Non-supplemented faeces and faeces from sheep supplemented with D. flagrans were deposited three times on pasture plots and samples were collected 7 and 14 days post-deposition. Samples were cultured in agar-water (2%) with Panagrellus spp. to recover D. flagrans and other nematophagous fungi, and soil nematodes were extracted using Baermann funnels and counted. No significant differences in the populations of soil nematodes and fungi colonizing sheep faeces (P > 0.05) were observed between supplemented and non-supplemented groups, except in one sample. The topsoil in contact with the faeces was sampled 1–4 months post-deposition, revealing that, with one exception, D. flagrans did not persist in soil beyond 2 months post-deposition. Duddingtonia flagrans does not affect faecal colonization by other fungi and soil nematodes and, once deployed on pasture, does not survive for long periods in the environment.


Corresponding author

*Fax: +54 249 4385850 ext 251 E-mail:


Hide All
Cooke, R.C. & Godfrey, B.E.S. (1964) A key to the nematode-destroying fungi. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 47, 6174.
Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias (2002) Acta Original sobre Bienestar Animal. Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Tandil, Argentina. Available at (accessed accessed 15 September 2015).
Faedo, M., Larsen, M., Dimander, S.O., Yeates, G.W., Höglund, J. & Waller, P.J. (2002) Growth of the fungus Duddingtonia flagrans in soil surrounding feces deposited by cattle or sheep fed the fungus to control nematode parasites. Biological Control 23, 6470.
Fernández, A.S. & Saumell, C.A. (2012) Biological control of parasites in veterinary medicine. pp. 309340 in Paz-Silva, A. & Sol, M. (Eds) Fungi: Types, environmental impact and role in disease. Hauppauge, New York, Nova Science Publishers.
Hammer, Ø., Harper, D.A.T. & Ryan, P.D. (2001) PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4.
Hay, F.S., Niezen, J.H., Miller, C., Bateson, L. & Robertson, H. (1997) Infestation of sheep dung by nematophagous fungi and implication for the control of free-living stages of gastro-intestinal nematodes. Veterinary Parasitology 70, 247254. (2014) Index Fungorum Partnership: Mycology Section, Royal Botanical Gardens Kew; Mycology Group, Landcare Research-NZ; Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Science. Available at / (accessed 3 October 2015).
Knox, M.R., Josh, P.F. & Anderson, L.J. (2002) Deployment of Duddingtonia flagrans in an improved pasture system: dispersal, persistence, and effects on free-living soil nematodes and microarthropods. Biological Control 24, 176182.
Larsen, M. (1999) Biological control of helminths. International Journal for Parasitology 29, 139146.
Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. (2008) Instruçáo Normativa Nro. 56, Recommendations of good practices for the welfare of farm animals and animals of economic interest. Available at (accessed accessed 19 November 2015).
Nansen, P., Larsen, M., Grønvold, J., Wolstrup, J., Zorn, A. & Henriksen, S.A. (1995) Prevention of clinical trichostrongylidosis in calves by strategic feeding with the predacious fungus Duddingtonia flagrans . Parasitology Research 81, 371374.
Paraud, C., Lorrain, R., Pors, I. & Chartier, C. (2012) Administration of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to goats: an evaluation of the impact of this fungus on the degradation of faeces and on free-living nematodes. Journal of Helminthology 86, 95103.
Rubner, A. (1996) Revision of predacious Hyphomycetes in the Dactylella–Monacrosporium complex. Studies in Mycology 39, 1134.
Sanyal, P.K., Sarkar, A.K., Patel, N.K., Pal, S. & Mandal, S.C. (2008) Evaluation of Chhattisgarh isolate of nematode trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans for their short-term environmental impact: studies on fungal spread and faecal decomposition. Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 22, 58.
SAS Institute Inc. (1989) SAS/STAT user's guide, version 6, vol. 1. 4th edn. Cary, North Carolina, SAS Institute.
Saumell, C.A. & Padilha, T. (2000) Influence of weather and time of deposition on sheep faeces colonization by nematophagous fungi in the Mata region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Applied Soil Ecology 14, 6370.
Saumell, C.A., Fernández, A.S., Fusé, L.A., Rodríguez, M., Sagüés, M.F. & Iglesias, L.E. (2015) Nematophagous fungi from decomposing cattle faeces in Argentina. Revista Iberoamericana de Micología 32, 252256.
Soulsby, E.J.L. (1982) Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals. 7th edn. 809 pp. London, Baillière Tindall.
Villareal, H, Álvarez, M., Córdoba, S., Escobar, F., Fagua, G., Gast, F., Mendoza, H., Ospina, M. & Umaña, A.M. (2004) Manual de métodos para el desarrollo de inventarios de biodiversidad. Programa de Inventarios de Biodiversidad. 236 pp. Bogotá, Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt.
Waller, P.J., Schwan, O., Ljungström, B.L., Rydzik, A. & Yeates, G.W. (2004) Evaluation of biological control of sheep parasites using Duddingtonia flagrans under commercial farming conditions on the island of Gotland, Sweden. Veterinary Parasitology 126, 299315.
Yeates, G.W., Dimander, S.O., Waller, P.J. & Höglund, J. (2002) Environmental impact on soil nematodes following the use of the ivermectin sustained-release bolus or the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to control nematode parasites of cattle in Sweden. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A – Animal Science 52, 233242.
Yeates, G.W., Dimander, S.O., Waller, P.J. & Höglund, J. (2003) Soil nematode populations beneath faecal pats from grazing cattle treated with the ivermectin sustained-release bolus or fed the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to control nematode parasites. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section A – Animal Science 53, 197206.
Yeates, G.W., Skipp, R.A., Gray, R.A.J., Chen, L.Y. & Waghorn, T.S. (2007a) Impact on soil fauna of sheep faeces containing a range of parasite control agents. Applied Soil Ecology 35, 380389.
Yeates, G.W., Skipp, R.A., Chen, L.Y., Waghorn, T.S. & Potter, J.F. (2007b) Temporal and spatial aspects of the influence on soil nematodes of depositing artificial pats of sheep faeces containing a range of parasite management agents. Applied Soil Ecology 37, 106117.

Lack of negative effects of the biological control agent Duddingtonia flagrans on soil nematodes and other nematophagous fungi

  • C.A. Saumell (a1), A.S. Fernández (a1), F. Echevarria (a2), I. Gonçalves (a2), L. Iglesias (a1), M.F. Sagües (a1) and E.M. Rodríguez (a3)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed