Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The intensity and duration of primary Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection in TO mice modify acquired immunity to secondary challenge

  • B.B. Fakae (a1), L.J.S. Harrison (a2) and M.M.H. Sewell (a2)

Abstract

The effect of dose and duration of immunizing infections of Heligmosomoides polygyrus on protection against homologous challenge was studied in female TO mice. Primary infections were terminated at various levels with pyrantel embonate (adult infections) or ivermectin (larval infections) and mice were then challenged with 500 infective larvae (L3). The level of protection to secondary challenge positively correlated with the intensity of the primary immunizing infection but truncation of larval infection produced significantly better protection than termination of the adult nematode infection. The duration of the primary larval infection (1–6 days) positively correlated with the level of protection to secondary challenge, antibody responses and the proportion of circulating eosinophils. Histological changes in the gastrointestinal tract, peripheral leucocytic changes and antibody responses of the mice to H. polygyrus adult somatic antigens indicate both a cellular and humoral basis of host immunity to secondary challenge. Although the TO mice are slow responders in that they harbour chronic infections, immunization by intramucosal killing of the larval stage produced strong protection against secondary challenge infection. The presence of dead immunogenic larval stages within the intestinal wall may well be an important factor, since it exposes the host to stage specific antigens at an appropriate location. The implications of the findings for the control of gastrointestinal nematode infections are also discussed.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Fax: +234 42 770075 E-mail: misunn@aol.com

References

Hide All
Bain, R.K. (1999) Irradiated vaccines for helminth control in livestock. International Journal for Parasitology 29, 185191.
Bancroft, J.D. & Stevens, A. (1977) Theory and practice of histological techniques. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingtone.
Bartlett, A. & Ball, P.A.J. (1972) Nematospiroides dubius in the mouse as a possible model of endemic human hookworm infection. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 66, 129134.
Bartlett, A. & Ball, P.A.J. (1974) The immune response of the mouse to larval and adults of Nematospiroides dubius. International Journal for Parasitology 4, 463470.
Behnke, J.M. & Parish, H. (1979) Expulsion of Nematospiroides dubius from intestine of mice treated with immune serum. Parasite Immunology 1, 1326.
Behnke, J.M. & Wakelin, D. (1977) Nematospiroides dubius: stimulation of acquired immunity in inbred strains of mice. Journal of Helminthology 51, 167176.
Behnke, J.M., Hannah, J. & Pritchard, D.I. (1983) Nematospiroides dubius in the mouse: evidence that adult worms depress the expression of homologous immunity. Parasite Immunology 5, 397408.
Cypess, R.H. (1972) Blood cell count changes associated with immunity to Nematospiroides dubius. Journal of Parasitology 58, 563566.
Fakae, B.B. (1990) Epidemiology of helminthosis of small ruminants under the traditional husbandry system in eastern Nigeria. Veterinary Research Communications 14, 381391.
Fakae, B.B., Harrison, L.J.S., Ross, C.A. & Sewell, M.M.H. (1994) Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Trypanosoma congolense infection in mice: a laboratory model for concurrent gastrointestinal nematode and trypanosome infections. Parasitology 108, 6168.
Fakae, B.B., Harrison, L.J.S., Ross, C.A. & Sewell, M.M.H. (1997) Expression of acquired immunity to Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection in mice concurrently infected with Trypanosoma congolense. International Journal for Parasitology 27, 11071114.
Fakae, B.B., Chiejina, S.N., Behnke, J.M., Ezeokonkwo, R.C., Nnadi, P.A., Onyenwe, W.I., Gilbert, F.S. & Wakelin, D. (1999a) The response of Nigerian West African Dwarf Goats to experimental infections with Haemonchus contortus infections. Research in Veterinary Science 66, 147158.
Fakae, B.B., Harrison, L.J.S., Ross, C.A. & Sewell, M.M.H. (1999b) Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Trypanosoma congolense infection in mice: effect of immunisation by abbreviated larval infection. Veterinary Parasitology 85, 1323.
Finkelman, F.D., Pearce, E.J., Urban, J.F. & Sher, A. (1991) Regulation and biological function of helminth-induced cytokine responses. Parasitology Today 7, A62-A66.
Fowler, J. & Cohen, L. (1990) Practical statistics for field biology. Milton Keynes, Open University Press.
Hurley, J.C. & Vadas, M.A. (1983) Eosinophilia and acquisition of resistance to Nematospiroides dubius in mice sensitized with adult worms. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science 61, 19.
Jacobson, R.H., Brooks, B.O. & Cypess, R.H. (1982) Immunity to Nematospiroides dubius: parasite stages responsible for and subject to resistance in high responder (LAF1/J) mice. Journal of Parasitology 86, 10531058.
McClure, S.J., Emery, D.L., Wagland, B.M. & Jones, W.O. (1992) A serial study of rejection of Trichostrongylus colubriformis by immune sheep. International Journal for Parasitology 22, 227234.
Monroy, F.G. & Enriquez, F.J. (1992) Heligmosomoides polygyrus: a model for chronic gastrointestinal helminthiasis. Parasitology Today 8, 4954.
Newton, S.E. & Munn, E.A. (1999) The development of vaccines against gastrointestinal nematode parasites, particularly Haemonchus contortus. Parasitology Today 15, 116122.
Pleass, R.J. & Bianco, A.E. (1994) The role of the adult worms in suppressing functional protective immunity to Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri challenge infections. Parasite Immunology 16, 619628.
Pritchard, D.I., Williams, D.J.L., Behnke, J.M. & Lee, T.D.G. (1983) The role of IgG1 hypergammaglobulinaemia in immunity to gastrointestinal nematode Nematospiroides dubius. The immunochemical purification, antigen-specificity and in vivo anti-parasite effect of IgG1 from immune serum. Immunology 49, 353365.
Prowse, S.J., Mitchell, G.F., Ey, P.L. & Jenkins, C.R. (1979) The development of resistance in different inbred strains of mice to infection with Nematospiroides dubius. Parasite Immunology 1, 277288.
Urban, J.F., Katona, I.M., Paul, W.E. & Finkelman, F.D. (1991) Heligmosomoides polygyrus: CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells regulate the IgE response and protective immunity in mice. Experimental Parasitology 73, 500511.
Urban, J.F., Fayer, R., Sullivan, C., Goldhill, J., Shea-Donohue, T., Madden, K., Morris, S.C., Katona, I., Gause, W., Ruff, M., Mansfield, L.S. & Finkelman, F.D. (1996) Local TH1 and TH2 responses to parasitic infection in the intestine: regulation by IFN-gamma and IL-4. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 54, 337344.
Wahid, F.N. & Behnke, J.M. (1992) Stimuli for acquired resistance to Heligmosomoides polygyrus from intestinal tissue resident L3 and L4 larvae. International Journal for Parasitology 22, 699710.
Wahid, F.N., Behnke, J.M. & Conway, D.J. (1989) Factors affecting the efficacy of ivermectin against Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Nematospiroides dubius) in mice. Veterinary Parasitology 32, 325340.
Wakelin, D. (1986) The role of the immune response in helminth population regulation. International Journal for Parasitology 17, 549557.
Williams, D.J. & Behnke, J.M. (1983) Host protective antibodies and serum immunoglobulin isotypes in mice chronically infected or repeatedly immunized with the nematode parasite Nematospiroides dubius. Immunology 48, 3747.
Zhong, S. & Dobson, C. (1996) Heligmosomoides polygyrus: resistance in inbred, outbred, and selected mice. Experimental Parasitology 82, 122131.

The intensity and duration of primary Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection in TO mice modify acquired immunity to secondary challenge

  • B.B. Fakae (a1), L.J.S. Harrison (a2) and M.M.H. Sewell (a2)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed