Skip to main content Accessibility help

In vitro anthelmintic activity of Siparuna guianensis extract and essential oil against Strongyloides venezuelensis

  • V.F. Carvalho (a1), L. dos A. Ramos (a2), C.A. da Silva (a3), L. Nebo (a3), D. Moraes (a1), F.F.A. da Silva (a3), N.C.A. da Costa (a3), R. de O. Rodrigues Junior (a3), L.F. de Souza (a4) and R.M. Rodrigues (a1)...


New therapeutic approaches are necessary to control strongyloidiasis due to the side effects of, and resistance to, currently available drugs thiabendazole, albendazole, and ivermectin. This study examined the anthelmintic properties of extracts and isolated compounds from Siparuna guianensis against Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae, using the egg hatching test (EHT) and larval motility test (LMT). Albendazole (0.025 mg/ml) and ivermectin (0.316 mg/ml) were used as the positive controls for the EHT and LMT assays, respectively. Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs or larvae (±50 specimens) were treated with ethanol extract (0.05–1.0 mg/ml), ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions (0.05–0.8 mg/ml), essential oil (0.2–1.0 mg/ml) and α-bisabolol (0.2–1.0 mg/ml) from S. guianensis, and analysed by optical microscopy after 48 h (EHT), or after 24, 48 and 72 h (LMT). All the tested compounds exhibited ovicidal activity equivalent to the positive control and changed the morphology of the eggs. The S. guianensis ethanol extract and aqueous fraction were as effective as the positive control. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract and fractions revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, tannins and flavonoids. Therefore, S. guianensis is effective against S. venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vitro, and can be considered as a potential alternative treatment for strongyloidiasis.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: R.M. Rodrigues, E-mail:


Hide All

Current address: Rodovia BR 364, Km 192, Jataí, Goiás - GO, CEP: 75.801-615, Brazil.



Hide All
Aguiar, RWS, Santos, SF, Morgado, FS, Ascencio, SD, Lopes, MM, Viana, KF, Didonet, J and Ribeiro, BM (2015) Insecticidal and repellent activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. PLoS ONE 10, e0116765.
Al-Rofaai, A, Rahman, WA and Abdulghani, M (2013) Sensitivity of two in vitro assays for evaluating plant activity against the infective stage of Haemonchus contortus strains. Parasitology Research 112, 893898.
Baek, BK, Islam, MK and Kim, JH (1998) Development of an in vitro culture method for harvesting the free-living infective larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis. The Korean Journal of Parasitology 36, 1522.
Barbosa, WLR, Quignard, E, Tavares, ICC, Pinto, LN, Oliveira, FQ and Oliveira, RM (2004) Manual para análise fitoquímica e cromatográfia de extratos vegetais. Revista cientifica da UFPA V(4).
Carvalho, CO, Chagas, ACS, Cotinguiba, F, Furlan, M, Brito, LG, Chaves, FCM, Stephan, MP, Bizzo, HR and Amarante, AFT (2012) The anthelmintic effect of plant extracts on Haemonchus contortus and Strongyloides venezuelensis. Veterinary Parasitology 183, 260268.
Coles, GC, Bauer, C, Borgsteede, FH, Geerts, S, Klei, TR, Taylor, MA and Waller, PJ (1992) World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Veterinary Parasitology 44, 3544.
Cordeiro, LN, Athayde, ACR, Vilela, VLR, Costa, JGM, Silva, WA, Araújo, MM and Rodrigues, OG (2010) Efeito in vitro do extrato etanólico das folhas do melão-de-São-Caetano (Momordica charantia L.) sobre ovos e larvas de nematόides gastrintestinais de caprinos. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais 12, 421426.
Diniz, JA (2014) Siparuna guianensis Aublet como nova fonte de α-bisabolol para o controle de Rhipicephalus microplus. Viçosa, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 82 pp.
Femex, EVS, Díaz, MAA, Gives, PM, Mora, BV, Zamilpa, A and Cortazar, MG (2016) Ovicidal activity of extracts from four plant species against the cattle nematode Cooperia punctata. Veterinaria México OA 3, 114.
Greaves, D, Coggle, S, Pollard, C, Aliyu, SH and Moore, EM (2013) Strongyloides stercoralis infection. British Medical Journal 347, f4610.
Grove, DI (1996) Human strongyloidiasis. Advances in Parasitology 38, 251309.
Hoste, H, Jackson, F, Athanasiadou, S, Thamsborg, SM and Hoskin, SO (2006) The effects of tannin-rich plants on parasitic nematodes in ruminants. Trends in Parasitology 22, 253261.
Kerboeuf, D, Riou, M and Guégnard, F (2008) Flavonoids and related compounds in parasitic disease control. Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry 8, 116128.
Kozan, E, Anul, SA and Tatli, II (2013) In vitro anthelmintic effect of Vicia pannonica var. purpurascens on trichostrongylosis in sheep. Experimental Parasitology 134, 299303.
Krychak-Furtado, S, Negrelle, RB, Miguel, OG, Zaniolo, SR, Kapronezai, J, Ramos, SJ and Sotello, A (2005) Efeito de Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) e Musa parasidiaca Linn. (Musaceae) sobre o desenvolvimento de ovos de nematódeos gastrintestinais de ovinos. Arquivos do Instituto Biológico de São Paulo 72, 191197.
Kumarasingha, R, Karpe, AV, Preston, S, et al. (2016) Metabolic profiling and in vitro assessment of anthelmintic fractions of Picria fel-terrae Lour. International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance 6, 171178.
Leitão, GG, El-Adji, SS, Melo, WAL, Leitão, SG and Brown, L (2005) Separation of free and glycosylated flavonoids from Siparuna guianensis by gradient and isocratic CCC. Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies 28, 20412051.
Levenhagen, MA and Costa-Cruz, JM (2014) Update on immunologic and molecular diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. Acta Tropica 135, 3343.
Macedo, ITF, Bevilaqua, CML, Oliveira, LMB, et al. (2009) Atividade ovicida e larvicida in vitro do óleo essencial de Eucalyptus globulus sobre Haemonchus contortus. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária 18, 6266.
Macedo, ITF, Bevilaqua, CML, Oliveira, LMB, Camurça-Vasconcelos, ALF, Morais, SM, Machado, LKA and Ribeiro, WLC (2012) In vitro activity of Lantana camara, Alpinia zerumbet, Mentha villosa and Tagetes minuta decoctions on Haemonchus contortus eggs and larvae. Veterinary Parasitology 190, 504509.
Medeiros, PBS (2014) Atividade anti-helmíntica do extrato etanólico bruto e frações de Spondias lutea (Anacardiacea) sobre Strongyloides venezuelensis (Nematoda, Rhabditoidea) in vitro. Campinas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 65 pp.
Moraes, D, Levenhagen, MA, Costa-Cruz, JM, Costa Netto, AP and Rodrigues, RM (2017) In vitro efficacy of latex and purified papain from Carica papaya against Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 59, e7.
Moura, EB, Maia, MO, Ghazi, M, Amorim, FF and Pinhati, HM (2012) Salvage treatment of disseminated strongyloidiasis in an immunocompromised patient: therapy success with subcutaneous ivermectin. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases 16, 479481.
Negri, G, Santi, D and Tabach, R (2012) Chemical composition of hydroethanolic extracts from Siparuna guianensis, medicinal plant used as anxiolytics in Amazon region. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 22, 10241034.
Puthiyakunnon, S, Boddu, S, Li, Y, Zhou, X, Wang, C, Li, J and Chen, X (2014) Strongyloidiasis - an insight into its global prevalence and management. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 8, e3018.
Rebollo, CD, Taira, N, Ura, S and Williams, JC (2003) Larvicidal effects of several chemicals on Strongyloides infective larvae. Veterinary Parasitology 118, 165168.
Rugai, E, Mattos, T and Brisola, AP (1954) Nova técnica para isolar larvas de nematoides das fezes: modificações do método de Baermann. Revista do Instituto Adolfo Lutz 14, 58.
Valentini, CMA, Rodríguez-Ortíz, CE and Coelho, MFB (2010) Siparuna guianensis Aublet (negramina): uma revisão. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais 12, 96104.
Wangchuk, P, Pearson, MS, Giacomin, PR, Becker, L, Sotillo, J, Pickering, D, Smout, MJ and Loukas, A (2016) Compounds derived from the Bhutanese Daisy, Ajania nubigena, demonstrate dual anthelmintic activity against Schistosoma mansoni and Trichuris muris. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 10, e0004908.
Wood, IB, Amaral, NK, Bairden, K, et al. (1995) World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) second edition of guidelines for evaluating the efficacy of anthelmintics in ruminants (bovine, ovine, caprine). Veterinary Parasitology 58, 181213.


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Carvalho et al. supplementary material
Carvalho et al. supplementary material 1

 Word (454 KB)
454 KB

In vitro anthelmintic activity of Siparuna guianensis extract and essential oil against Strongyloides venezuelensis

  • V.F. Carvalho (a1), L. dos A. Ramos (a2), C.A. da Silva (a3), L. Nebo (a3), D. Moraes (a1), F.F.A. da Silva (a3), N.C.A. da Costa (a3), R. de O. Rodrigues Junior (a3), L.F. de Souza (a4) and R.M. Rodrigues (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed