Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

In vitro and in vivo studies on the bioactivity of a ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract towards adult schistosomes and their egg production

  • L. Sanderson (a1), A. Bartlett (a1) and P.J. Whitfield (a1)

Abstract

The bioactivity of an ethyl acetate extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) towards Schistosoma mansoni adult pairs, both cultured in vitro and in vivo in laboratory mice, was investigated by monitoring worm mortality and fecundity. In vitro, a concentration of 200 mg l-1 of extract killed almost all worms within 24 h. Male worms seemed more susceptible than female under these conditions. Cumulative egg output of surviving worm pairs in vitro was considerably reduced when exposed to the extract. For example, after 4 days of exposure to 50 mg l-1, cumulative egg output was only 0.38 eggs per worm pair compared with 36.35 for untreated worms. In vivo efficacy of the extract was tested by oral and subcutaneous delivery of 150 mg kg-1 followed by assessment of worm survival and fecundity. Neither delivery route produced any significant reduction in worm numbers compared with untreated controls. Worm fecundity was assessed in vivo by cumulative egg counts per liver at 55 days post infection with mice treated subcutaneously. Such infections showed egg levels in the liver of about 2000 eggs per worm pair in 55 days, in both treated and control mice, with no significant difference between the two groups. To ensure that density-dependent effects did not confound this analysis, a separate experiment demonstrated no such influence on egg output per worm pair, at intensities between 1 and 23 worms per mouse.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence Fax: 0207 848 4195 E-mail phil.whitfield@kcl.ac.uk

References

Hide All
Adewunmi, C.O., Oguntimein, B. & Furu, P. (1990) Molluscicidal and antischistosomal activity of Zingiber officinale. Planta Medica 39, 5765.
Alder, H.L. & Roessler, E.B. (1976) Introduction to probability and statistics. San Francisco, W.H. Freeman & Co.
Anon, (1994) Pharmaceuticals from plants: great potential, few funds. Editorial, The Lancet 343, 15131515.
Barreto, M.L., Smith, D.H. & Sleigh, A.D. (1990) Implications of faecal egg count variation when using the Kato-Katz method to assess Schistosoma mansoni infections. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 84, 554555.
Bergquist, N.R. (1995) Controlling schistosomiasis by vaccination: a realistic option? Parasitology Today 11, 191194.
Brindley, P.J. (1994) Drug resistance to schistosomicides and other anthelmintics of medical significance. Acta Tropica 56, 213231.
Butterworth, A.E. (1994) Human immunity to schistosomes: some questions. Parasitology Today 10, 378380.
Calixto, J.B. (2000) Efficacy, safety, quality control, marketing and regulatory guidelines for herbal medicines (phytotherapeutic agents). Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 33, 179189.
Chandiwana, S.K., Woolhouse, M.E.J. & Bradley, M. (1991) Factors affecting the intensity of reinfection with Schistosoma haematobium following treatment with praziquantel. Parasitology 102, 7383.
Cheever, A.W., Duvall, R.H., Hallack, T.A., Minker, R.G., Malley, J.D. & Malley, K.G. (1987) Variation of hepatic fibrosis and granuloma size among mouse strains infected with Schistosoma mansoni. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 37, 8597.
Cheever, A.W., Macedonia, J.G., Mosimann, J.E. & Cheever, E.A. (1994a) Kinetics of egg production and egg excretion by Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum in mice infected with a single pair of worms. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 50, 281295.
Cheever, A.W., Mosimann, J.E., Deb, S., Cheever, E.A. & Duvall, R.H. (1994b) Natural history of Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice: egg production, egg passage in the feces and contribution of host and parasite death to changes in worm numbers. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 50, 269280.
Cioli, D. (1998) Chemotherapy of schistosomiasis: an update. Parasitology Today 14, 418422.
Cioli, D., Pica-Mattoccia, L. & Archer, S. (1993) Drug resistance in schistosomes. Parasitology Today 9, 162166.
Cragg, G.M., Newman, D.J. & Snader, K.M. (1997) Natural products in drug discovery and development. Journal of Natural Products 60, 5260.
De Clercq, D., Vercruysse, J., Picquet, M., Shaw, D.J., Diop, M., Ly, A. & Gryseels, B. (1999) The epidemiology of a recent focus of mixed Schistosoma mansoni infections around the ‘Lac de Guiers' in the Senegal River Basin, Senegal. Tropical Medicine and International Health 4, 544550.
El-ridi, R., Ozaki, T., Inaba, T., Ito, M. & Kamiya, H. (1997) Schistosoma mansoni oviposition in vitro reflects worm fecundity in vivo: individual, parasite age and host-dependent variations. International Journal for Parasitology 27, 381387.
Etard, J.F., Audibert, M. & Dabo, A. (1995) Age acquired resistance and predisposition to reinfection with Schistosoma haematobium after treatment with praziquantel in Mali. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 52, 549558.
Fallon, P.G. (1998) Schistosome resistance to praziquantel. Drug Resistance Updates 1, 236241.
Fallon, P.G. & Doenhoff, M.J. (1994) Drug-resistant schistosomiasis: resistance to praziquantel and oxamniquine induced in Schistosoma mansoni in mice is drug specific. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 51, 8388.
Fallon, P.G., Smith, P., Nicholls, T., Modha, J. & Doenhoff, M.J. (1994) Praziquantel-induced exposure of Schistosoma mansoni alkaline phosphatase: drug-antibody synergy which acts preferentially against female worms. Parasite Immunology 16, 529535.
Fallon, P.G., Sturrock, R.F., Capron, A., Niang, M. & Doenhoff, M.J. (1995) Diminished susceptibility to praziquantel in a Senegal isolate of Schistosoma mansoni. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 53, 6162.
Gryseels, B. (2000) Schistosomiasis vaccines: a devils advocate view. Parasitology Today 16, 4648.
Guyatt, H.L. & Evans, D. (1995) Desirable characteristics of a schistosomiasis vaccine: some implications of a cost-effectiveness analysis. Acta Tropica 59, 197209.
Hammond, J.A., Fielding, D. & Bishop, S.C. (1997) Prospects for plant anthelmintics in tropical veterinary medicine. Veterinary Research Communications 21, 213228.
Jones, J.T., Breeze, P. & Kusel, J.R. (1989) Schistosome fecundity: influence of host genotype and intensity of infection. International Journal for Parasitology 19, 769777.
Kusel, J. & Hagan, P. (1999) Praziquantel–its use, cost and possible development of resistance. Parasitology Today 15, 352354.
Melhorn, H., Becker, B., Andrews, P., Thomas, H. & Frenkel, J.K. (1981) In vivo and in vitro experiments on the effects of praziquantel on Schistosoma mansoni. Drug Research 31, 544554.
Pereira, C., Fallon, P.G., Cornette, J., Capron, A., Doenhoff, M.J. & Pierce, R.J. (1998) Alterations in cytochrome-c oxidase expression between praziquantel-resistant and susceptible strains of Schistosoma mansoni. Parasitology 117, 6373.
Picquet, M., Vercruysse, J., Shaw, D.J., Diop, M. & Ly, A. (1998) Efficacy of praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni in northern Senegal. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 92, 9093.
Polderman, A.M. & De Caluwe, P. (1989) Eight years of targeted mass treatment of Schistosoma mansoni. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 40, 177180.
Popiel, I. & Erasmus, D.A. (1982) Schistosoma mansoni: the survival and reproductive status of mature infections in mice treated with oxamniquine. Journal of Helminthology 56, 257261.
Sabah, A.A., Fletcher, C., Webbe, G. & Doenhoff, M.J. (1986) Schistosoma mansoni: chemotherapy of infections of different ages. Experimental Parasitology 61, 294303.
Salvioli, L., Renganathan, E., Montresor, A., Davis, A. & Behbehani, K. (1997) Control of schistosomiasis–a global picture. Parasitology Today 13, 444448.
Sanderson, L. (1998) Studies on the potential use of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in the control of schistosomiasis. PhD thesis, University of London.
Schirazian, D. & Schiller, E.L. (1983) A technique for selecting uniform samples of Schistosoma mansoni based on egg production. Journal of Parasitology 69, 989990.
Sleigh, A.C., Mott, K.E., Franca Silva, J.T., Muniz, T.M., Mota, E.A., Barreto, M.L., Hoff, R., Maguire, J.H., Lehman, J.S. & Sherlock, I. (1981) A three year follow up of chemotherapy with oxamniquine in a Brazilian community with endemic schistosomiasis mansoni. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 75, 234238.
Standen, O.D. (1949) Experimental schistosomiasis II: maintenance of Schistosoma mansoni in the laboratory, with some notes on experimental infection with S. haematobium. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 43, 268283.
Stelma, F.F., Talla, I., Sow, S., Kongs, A., Niang, M., Polman, K., Deelder, A.M. & Gryseels, B. (1995) Efficacy and side effects of praziquantel in an epidemic focus of Schistosoma mansoni. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 61, 563569.
WHO, (1997) Schistosomiasis. Fact sheet no. 115. Geneva, WHO.
Xiaorui, Z. (1999) Traditional medicine world-wide–the role of the WHO. Drug Information Journal 33, 321326.

In vitro and in vivo studies on the bioactivity of a ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract towards adult schistosomes and their egg production

  • L. Sanderson (a1), A. Bartlett (a1) and P.J. Whitfield (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed