Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Evolutionary relationships within ‘pygmaeus’ group microphallids using genetic analysis and scanning electron microscopy

  • K.V. Galaktionov (a1), S.A. Bulat (a2), I.A. Alekhina (a2), D.H. Saville (a3), S.M. Fitzpatrick (a3) and S.W.B. Irwin (a3)...

Abstract

There are four species of ‘pygmaeus’ microphallids, namely Microphallus pygmaeus, M. piriformes, M. pseudopygmaeus and M. triangulatus (Trematoda: Microphallidae) which are parasites of marine birds and their sporocysts give rise to transmissible metacercariae inside littoral gastropods (mostly littorines). Universally primed polymerase chain reaction (UP-PCR) showed no apparent pattern between genetic diversity of the metacercariae as estimated by genomic banding profiles and their geographic region or molluscan host species. At the same time UP-PCR product cross-hybridization showed that M. pseudopygmaeus and M. triangulatus are genetically very similar, indicating that these taxa represent one species complex. In contrast, M. pygmaeus and M. piriformes are genetically well separated from each other and also from the pseudopygmaeus–triangulatus complex. Scanning electron microscopy of ventral spines, and analyses of spine angles and the number of teeth per spine, showed that all species differed significantly from one another. It was concluded that M. piriformes represents the original western member of the ‘pygmaeus’ group. Microphallus pygmaeus probably diverged from M. piriformes as it progressively specialized for sea duck final hosts. Microphallus pseudopygmaeus and M. triangulatus diverged from each other and the piriformes–pygmaeus ancestral line relatively recently. Microphallus pseudopygmaeus specialized for adoption of a wide range of gastropod host species and M. triangulatus developed morpho-functional specialization associated with final host exploitation.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Fax: +02890 366028, Email: swb.irwin@ulster.ac.uk

References

Hide All
Belopolskaya, M.M. (1963) Trematodes of the family Microphallidae Travassos, 1920. pp. 259502in Skriabin, K.I.(Ed.) Trematodes of humans and animals. Vol. 21 (in Russian).
Belopolskaya, M.M. (1983) Ecology and geographical distribution of helminths of migrating birds. pp. 174189in Polianski, Y.I.(Ed.) Free-living and parasitic invertebrates (morphology, biology, evolution). Leningrad, Leningrad State University Press (in Russian).
Belopolski, L.O. (1971) The food composition of the seabirds of the Barents Sea. Uchenie Zapiski Kaliningradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta (Scientific notes of Kaliningrad State University) 6, 4167 (in Russian).
Bulat, S.A. & Mironenko, N.V. (1990) Species identity of the phytopathogenic fungi Pyrenophora teres Dreschler and P. graminea Ito & Kuribayashi. Mikologia i Phytopatologia 24, 435441 (in Russian).
Bulat, S.A., Kaboev, O.K., Mironenko, N.V., Ibatullin, P.M., Luchkina, L.A. & Suslov, A.V. (1992) Polymerase chain reaction with universal primers for study of genomes. Soviet Genetics 28, 549557 (in Russian).
Bulat, S.A., Lübeck, M., Mironenko, N., Jensen, D.F. & Lübeck, P. (1998) UP-PCR analysis and ITS1 ribotyping of Trichoderma and Gliocladium fungi. Mycological Research 102, 933943.
Bulat, S.A., Mokrousov, I.V. & Podlipaev, S.A. (1999) Classification of trypanosomatids from insects and plants by the UP-PCR (universally primed PCR) technique and cross dot blot hybridization of PCR products. European Journal of Protistology 35, 319326.
Bulat, S.A., Lübeck, M., Alekhina, I.A., Jensen, D.F., Knudsen, I.M.B. & Lübeck, P.S. (2000) Identification of an UP-PCR derived SCAR marker for an antagonistic strain of Clonostachys rosea and development of a strain-specific PCR detection assay. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66, 47584763.
Bustnes, J.O. & Galaktionov, K.V. (1999) Anthropogenic influences on the infestation of intertidal gastropods by seabird trematode larvae on the southern Barents Sea coast. Marine Biology 133, 449453.
Davies, C. (1979) The forebody glands and surface features of the metacercariae and adults of Microphallus similis. International Journal for Parasitology 9, 553564.
Galaktionov, K.V. (1980) Four types of metacercariae species in molluscs, Littorina saxatilis and L. obtusata from the Barents and White Seas. Vestnik Leningradskogo Universiteta 3, 2128 (in Russian).
Galaktionov, K.V. (1983) Microphallids of the "pygmaeus" group. I. Description of species Microphallus pygmaeus (Levinsen, 1881) nec Odhner, 1905 and M. piriformes (Odhner, 1905) nom. nov. (Trematoda: Microphallidae). Vestnik Leningradskogo Universiteta 15, 2030 (in Russian).
Galaktionov, K.V. (1984) Microphallids of the "pygmaeus" group. II. Microphallus triangulatus sp. nov. (Trematoda: Microphallidae). Vestnik Leningradskogo Universiteta 3, 511 (in Russian).
Galaktionov, K.V. (1986) Metacercariae of the family Microphallidae Travassos, 1920 from benthic molluscs of the south-eastern part of the Barents Sea. Parazitologia 20, 389396 (in Russian).
Galaktionov, K.V. (1993) Trematodes life cycles as components of ecosystems. Apatity, Kola Scientific Centre Press, 190 pp. (in Russian).
Galaktionov, K.V. (1996) Life cycles and distribution of seabird helminths in Arctic and subarctic regions. Bulletin of the Scandinavian Society for Parasitology 6, 3149.
Galaktionov, K.V. & Bustnes, J.O. (1999) Distribution patterns of marine bird digenean larvae in periwinkles along the southern Barents Sea coast. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 37, 221230.
Galaktionov, K.V. & Skirnisson, K. (2000) Digeneans from intertidal molluscs of SW Iceland. Systematic Parasitology 47, 87101.
Galaktionov, K.V., Saville, D.H., Irwin, S.W.B. & Malkova, I.I. (1997) A comparison of Microphallus pygmaeus (from northern Russia) and M. piriformes (from northern Russia and Northern Ireland) cultivated in vivo and in ovo BSP Spring Meeting, Abstracts, 82 Manchester.
Irwin, S.W.B. & Saville, D.H. (1988) Cultivation and development of Microphallus pygmaeus (Trematoda: Microphallidae) in fertile chick eggs. Parasitology Research 74, 396398.
James, B.L. (1968) Studies on the life-cycle of Microphallus pygmaeus (Levinsen, 1881) (Trematoda: Microphallidae). Journal of Natural History 2, 155172.
Lübeck, P.S., Alekhina, I.A., Lübeck, M. & Bulat, S.A. (1998) UP-PCR genotyping and rDNA analysis of Ascochyta pisi Lib. Journal of Phytopathology 146, 5155.
Lübeck, M., Alekhina, I., Lübeck, P.S., Jensen, D.F. & Bulat, S.A. (1999) Delineation of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai into two different genotypic groups by a highly robust fingerprinting method, UP-PCR, and UP-PCR product cross-hybridisation. Mycological Research 103, 289298.
Mironenko, N.V., Alekhina, I.A., Zhdanova, N.N. & Bulat, S.A. (2000) Intraspecific variation in gamma-radiation resistance and genomic structure in the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata: a case study of strains inhabiting Chernobyl Reactor No. 4. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 45, 177187.
Saville, D.H., Galaktionov, K.V., Irwin, S.W.B. & Malkova, I.I. (1997) Morphological comparison and identification of metacercariae in the "pygmaeus" group of microphallids, parasites of seabirds in western Palearctic regions. Journal of Helminthology 71, 167174.
Tsimbaljuk, A.K., Kulikov, V.V. & Baranova, T.I. (1968) Biology of Microphallus calidris Belopolskaia et Ryjkov, 1963 (Trematoda: Microphallidae). pp. 125283in Skriabin, K.I. & Mamaev, Y.L.(Eds) Helminths of the Pacific Ocean animals. Moscow, Nauka Press.
Tsimbaljuk, A. K., Kulikov, V. V. & Baranova, T. I. (1978) Helminths of invertebrates from the intertidal zone of the Iturup island. pp. 69126in Kusakin, O.G.(Ed.) Fauna and vegetation of the shelf of the Kurile islands. Moscow, Nauka Press.
Williams, J.G.K., Kubelik, A.R., Livak, K.J., Rafalski, J.A. & Tingey, S.V. (1990) DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Research 18, 65316535.

Evolutionary relationships within ‘pygmaeus’ group microphallids using genetic analysis and scanning electron microscopy

  • K.V. Galaktionov (a1), S.A. Bulat (a2), I.A. Alekhina (a2), D.H. Saville (a3), S.M. Fitzpatrick (a3) and S.W.B. Irwin (a3)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed