Skip to main content Accessibility help

Detection of inducible nitric oxide synthase in Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni

  • X.-C. Long (a1) (a2), M. Bahgat (a1), K. Chlichlia (a1), A. Ruppel (a1) and Y.-L. Li (a2)...


Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni were tested for reactivity with an anti-inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) antibody and the distribution of iNOS was studied by immunofluorescent tests in different stages of the parasites. Reactivity was associated with the tegument in both larval schistosomes (sporocysts and cercariae) and eggs. With adult worms, the majority of the immunofluorescence was predominantly subtegumental in S. japonicum and parenchymal in S. mansoni. Fluorescence was also observed in host tissues (snails and mouse liver). In Western blots, the enzyme of S. japonicum had an apparent molecular weight of about 210 kDa. The possible role of worm and host iNOS in the parasite–host interrelation remains to be clarified.


Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence Fax: 86 27 83692608 Email:
Present address: Department of Medicinal Chemistry, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt


Hide All
Abdallahi, O.M.S., Bensalem, H., Diagana, M., De Reggi, M. & Gharib, B. (2001) Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity reduces liver injury in murine schistosomiasis. Parasitology 122, 309315.
Bahgat, M., Francklow, K., Doenhoff, M.J., Li, Y.L., Ramzy, R.M.R., Kirsten, C. & Ruppel, A. (2001) Infection induces antibodies against cercarial secretions, but not against the cercarial elastases of Schistosoma mansoni , S. haematobium , S. japonicum and Trichobilharzia ocellata. Parasite Immunology 23, 557565.
Bogdan, C. (1997) Of microbes, macrophages and nitric oxide. Behring Institut Mitteilungen 99, 5872.
Brunet, L.R., Beall, M., Dunne, D.W. & Pearce, E.J. (1999) Nitric oxide and the Th2 response combine to prevent severe hepatic damage during Schistosoma mansoni infection. Journal of Immunology 163, 49764984.
Clark, I.A. & Cowden, W.B. (1999) Why is the pathology of falciparum worse than that of vivax malaria? Parasitology Today 11, 458461.
Garside, P., Kennedy, M.W., Wakelin, D. & Lawrence, C.E. (2000) Immunopathology of intestinal helminth infections. Parasite Immunology 22, 605612.
Green, S.J., Nacy, C.A. & Meltzer, M.S. (1991) Cytokine-induced synthesis of nitrogen oxides in macrophages: a protective host response to Leishmania and other intracellular pathogens. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 50, 91103.
Hahn, U.K., Bender, R.C. & Bayne, C.J. (2001) Involvement of nitric oxide in killing of Schistosoma mansoni sporocysts by hemocytes from resistant Biomphalaria glabrata. Journal of Parasitology 87, 778785.
Hirata, M., Hirata, K., Kage, M., Zhang, M., Hara, T. & Fukuma, T. (2001) Effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on Schistosoma japonicum egg-induced granuloma formation in the mouse liver. Parasite Immunology 23, 281289.
James, S.L. & Glaven, J. (1989) Macrophage cytotoxicity against schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni involves arginine-dependent production of reactive nitrogen intermediates. Journal of Immunology 143, 42084212.
Kohn, A.B., Moroz, L.L., Lea, J.M. & Greenberg, R.M. (2001) Distribution of nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in the nervous system and peripheral tissues of Schistosoma mansoni. Parasitology 122, 8792.
Liew, F.Y., Wei, X.Q. & Proudfoot, L. (1997) Cytokines and nitric oxide as effector molecules against parasitic infections. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London 352, 13111315.
McLaren, D.J. (1980) Schistosoma mansoni: the parasite surface in relation to host immunity. Chichester, New York, Brisbane, Toronto, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Norris, K.A., Schrimpf, J.E., Flynn, J.L. & Morris, S.M. (1995) Enhancement of macrophage microbicidal activity: supplemental arginine and citrulline augment nitric oxide production in murine peritoneal macrophages and promote intracellular killing of Trypanosoma cruzi. Infection and Immunity 63, 27932796.
Oswald, I.P., Eltoum, I., Wynn, T.A., Schwartz, B., Caspar, P., Paulin, D., Sher, A. & James, S.L. (1994) Endothelial cells are activated by cytokine treatment to kill an intravascular parasite, Schistosoma mansoni , through the production of nitric oxide. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 91, 9991003.
Ruppel, A., Diesfeld, H.J. & Rother, U. (1985) Immunoblot analysis of Schistosoma mansoni antigens with sera of schistosomiasis patients: diagnostic potential of an adult schistosome polypeptide. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 62, 499506.
Ruppel, A., Shi, Y.E. & Moloney, N.A. (1990) Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum: comparison of levels of ultraviolet irradiation for vaccination of mice with cercariae. Parasitology 101, 2326.
Xie, Q.W., Cho, H.J., Calaycay, J., Mumford, R.A., Swiderek, K.M., Lee, T.D., Ding, A., Troso, T. & Nathan, C. (1992) Cloning and characterization of inducible nitric oxide synthase from mouse macrophages. Science 256, 225228.

Detection of inducible nitric oxide synthase in Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni

  • X.-C. Long (a1) (a2), M. Bahgat (a1), K. Chlichlia (a1), A. Ruppel (a1) and Y.-L. Li (a2)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed