Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Description and genetic characterization of a new Contracaecum larval type (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Australia

  • S. Shamsi (a1), A. Turner (a1) and S. Wassens (a2)

Abstract

Nematode parasites belonging to the genus Contracaecum are economically important parasites with zoonotic significance. Adult Contracaecum spp. are found in the stomach of marine mammals or piscivorous birds, and larval stages infect a wide range of invertebrates and fish species. Human infection with Contracaecum larvae has been reported in Australia and other countries after the consumption of infected fish. Although the genus Contracaecum comprises numerous species, thus far only four Contracaecum larval types have been specifically identified, therefore their life cycle and biology are not yet fully understood. In this study, a new Contracaecum larva (type IV), found in the intestinal tissue of carp caught from Coonancoocabil Lagoon, New South Wales, Australia, is described and characterized genetically. It was identified as Contracaecum bancrofti, a unique Australian species reported previously from the Australian pelican in Northern Territory, New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia. This study highlights the role of migratory birds and introduced fish species, such as carp, in distributing zoonotic pathogens not only across the continent but also from marine to freshwater systems. Coonancoocabil Lagoon is located in the Murrumbidgee Valley National Park, a highly managed conservation area with native fish in wetlands located in close proximity to several fish farms and hatcheries. Infection of a highly resilient invasive fish species, such as carp, with a zoonotic parasite of low host specificity, such as Contracaecum larvae, should be alarming for aquaculture and environmental authorities.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
Anderson, R.C. (2000) Nematode parasites of vertebrates: their development and transmission. Wallingford, CABI Publishing.
Bells, K. (2012) ‘If you can't beat em – eat em’. Carp recipe booklet. Available at https://arrc.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/carp-recipe-ebook-A5.pdf (accessed 19 April 2017).
Cannon, L.R.G. (1977) Some larval ascaridoids from south-eastern Queensland marine fishes. International Journal for Parasitology 7, 233243.
Desowitz, R.S. (1986) Human and experimental anisakiasis in the United States. Hokkaido Journal of Medical Science 61, 358371.
Garbin, L.E., Mattiucci, S., Paoletti, M., Diaz, J.I., Nascetti, G. & Navone, G.T. (2013) Molecular identification and larval morphological description of Contracaecum pelagicum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the anchovy Engraulis anchoita (Engraulidae) and fish-eating birds from the Argentine North Patagonian Sea. Parasitology International 62, 309319.
Johnston, T.H. & Mawson, P.M. (1941) Ascaroid nematodes from Australian birds. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 65, 110115.
Mattiucci, S., Paoletti, M., Olivero-Verbel, J., Baldiris, R., Arroyo-Salgado, B., Garbin, L., Navone, G. & Nascetti, G. (2008) Contracaecum bioccai n. sp. from the brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis (L.) in Colombia (Nematoda: Anisakidae): morphology, molecular evidence and its genetic relationship with congeners from fish-eating birds. Systematic Parasitology 69, 101121.
Mawson, P.M., Angel, M. & Edmonds, S.J. (1986) A checklist of helminths from Australian birds. Records of the South Australian Museum 19, 219325.
Shamsi, S. (2014) Recent advances in our knowledge of Australian anisakid nematodes. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 3, 178187.
Shamsi, S. & Butcher, A.R. (2011) First report of human anisakidosis in Australia. Medical Journal of Australia 194, 199200.
Shamsi, S. & Suthar, J. (2016) A revised method of examining fish for infection with zoonotic nematode larvae. International Journal of Food Microbiology 227, 1316.
Shamsi, S., Norman, R., Gasser, R. & Beveridge, I. (2009) Redescription and genetic characterization of selected Contracaecum spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from various hosts in Australia. Parasitology Research 104, 15071525.
Shamsi, S., Gasser, R.B. & Beveridge, I. (2011) Mutation scanning-coupled sequencing of nuclear ribosomal DNA spacers (as a taxonomic tool) for the specific identification of different Contracaecum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) larval types. Molecular and Cellular Probes 25 1318.
Smith, J.W. (1999) Ascaridoid nematodes and pathology of the alimentary tract and its associated organs in vertebrates, including man: a literature review. Helminthological Abstracts 68, 4996.
Smith, J.W. & Wootten, R. (1975) Experimental studies on the migration of Anisakis sp. larvae (Nematoda: Ascaridida) into the flesh of herring, Clupea harengus L. International Journal for Parasitology 5, 133136.
Szostakowska, B. & Fagerholm, H.P. (2007) Molecular identification of two strains of third-stage larvae of Contracaecum rudolphii sensu lato (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from fish in Poland. Journal of Parasitology 93, 961964.
Thompson, J.D., Gibson, T.J., Plewniac, F., Jeanmougin, F. & Higgins, D.G. (1997) The Clustal X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Research 24, 48764882.
Vidalmartinez, V.M., Osoriosarabia, D. & Overstreet, R.M. (1994) Experimental infection of Contracaecum multipapillatum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Mexico in the domestic cat. Journal of Parasitology 80, 576579.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed