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Risk and other factors associated with toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis in pregnant women from southern Brazil

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 July 2016

P.C. Santos
Affiliation:
Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine – FAMED, Area Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences (AICB) Federal University of Rio Grande – FURG, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
P.L. Telmo
Affiliation:
Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine – FAMED, Area Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences (AICB) Federal University of Rio Grande – FURG, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
L.M. Lehmann
Affiliation:
Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine – FAMED, Area Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences (AICB) Federal University of Rio Grande – FURG, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
G.T. Mattos
Affiliation:
Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine – FAMED, Area Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences (AICB) Federal University of Rio Grande – FURG, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
G.B. Klafke
Affiliation:
Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine – FAMED, Area Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences (AICB) Federal University of Rio Grande – FURG, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
C. Lorenzi
Affiliation:
Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine – FAMED, Area Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences (AICB) Federal University of Rio Grande – FURG, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
C. Hirsch
Affiliation:
Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine – FAMED, Area Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences (AICB) Federal University of Rio Grande – FURG, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
L. Lemos
Affiliation:
Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine – FAMED, Area Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences (AICB) Federal University of Rio Grande – FURG, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
M.E.A. Berne
Affiliation:
Laboratory of Parasitology, Institute of Biology, Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
C.V. Gonçalves
Affiliation:
Obstetric Center, University Hospital of Rio Grande, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
C.J. Scaini
Affiliation:
Laboratory of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine – FAMED, Area Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences (AICB) Federal University of Rio Grande – FURG, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Toxoplasmosis causes complications during pregnancy that have serious effects on fetal development. Thus far, toxocariasis has been reported to spread only via vertical transmission. Nonetheless, the population of pregnant women is also exposed to this infection. Co-infection with both Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. has been reported in children, but there are no reports of co-infection in the population of pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infection with T. gondii and Toxocara spp. in pregnant women at a university hospital in southern Brazil, and to identify the risk factors associated with infection by both parasites. Two hundred pregnant women were tested for the presence of anti-T. gondii and anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies and were asked to complete an epidemiological questionnaire. In this study, the co-infection rate observed in the total population of pregnant women was 8%. In addition, women with a positive result for a serology test for Toxocara spp. were at increased risk of infection by T. gondii (P = 0.019). Co-infection with both parasites in pregnant women was associated with low birth weights in neonates. The similar modes of transmission of both parasites could explain the co-infection. Only a few previous studies have investigated this phenomenon. The findings of the present study emphasize the importance of serological diagnosis during prenatal care and further research in this area to identify risk factors associated with this co-infection, and the possible implications of this co-infection during pregnancy and on the health of newborns.

Type
Research Papers
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 

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References

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