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Buying for Britain, China, or India? Patriotic trade, ethnicity, and market in the 1930s British empire/Commonwealth*

  • David Thackeray (a1)

Abstract

This article seeks to gain a clearer understanding of the language, reach, and limits of competing patriotic trade campaigns in the British empire during the 1930s, focusing on efforts to promote the purchase of Indian, Chinese, and ‘British’ products (a term which was used to refer to goods from both the UK and the Dominions). Civil society groups used patriotic-buying campaigns to promote and maintain forms of regionalized integration in response to the partial deglobalization of trade. Supporters of such campaigns sought to develop trade networks based on ethnic ties which could connect across and, in the Chinese case, beyond imperial spaces. However, the hybridity of colonial subjects’ identities impeded each of these efforts to develop patriotic trade networks and meant that the content, character, and popular appeal of trade campaigns shifted between different regions.

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I am grateful to audiences who gave feedback on earlier drafts of this article at various seminars in Australia, New Zealand, and the UK. In particular I would like to thank Andrew Dilley, Andrew Thompson, Richard Toye, and the editors and anonymous reviewers of this journal for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of this article.

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References

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1 See in particular Magee, Gary and Thompson, Andrew, Empire and globalisation: networks of people, goods and capital in the British world, c.1850–1914, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010 ; Belich, James, Replenishing the earth: the settler revolution and the rise of the Anglo-world, 1783–1939, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009 ; Lester, Alan, Imperial networks: creating identities in nineteenth-century South Africa and Britain, London: Routledge, 2001 ; Ballantyne, Tony and Burton, Antoinette, Empires and the reach of the global 1870–1945, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014 ; Bayly, C. A., The birth of the modern world 1780–1914: global connections and comparisons, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2004, chs. 6–9, 12–13 ; Trentmann, Frank, Empire of things: how we became a world of consumers, from the fifteenth century to the twenty-first, London: Allen Lane, 2016 , ch. 3.

2 The literature on ‘British World’ networks in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is now substantial. For good introductions, see Magee, and Thompson, , Empire and globalisation; Philip Buckner and R. Douglas Francis, eds., Rediscovering the British world, Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 2005 ; Darian-Smith, Kate, Grimshaw, Patricia, and Macintyre, Stuart, eds., Britishness abroad: transnational movements and imperial cultures, Melbourne: Melbourne University Publishing, 2007 ; Dubow, Saul, ‘How British was the British world? The case of South Africa’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 37, 1, 2009, pp. 127 ; Laidlaw, Zoe, ‘Breaking Britannia’s bounds? Law, settlers, and space in Britain’s imperial historiography’, Historical Journal, 55, 3, 2012, pp. 807830 ; Potter, Simon, ‘Webs, networks, and systems: globalization and the mass media in the nineteenth- and twentieth-century British empire’, Journal of British Studies, 46, 3, 2007, pp. 621646 .

3 Magee, and Thompson, , Empire and globalisation, p. 62 .

4 Burton, Antoinette, ‘Getting outside of the global: repositioning British imperialism in world history’, in Empire in question: reading, writing and teaching British imperialism, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2011, pp. 279, 287 .

5 Belich, Replenishing the earth, chs. 7, 9–10, 13, 16–17.

6 For useful critical analyses of the ‘British World’ literature, see Bright, Rachel and Dilley, Andrew, ‘After the British World’, Historical Journal, forthcoming, 2017; Tamson Pietsch, ‘Rethinking the British World’, Journal of British Studies, 52, 2, 2013, pp. 444448 .

7 Amrith, Sunil S., Crossing the Bay of Bengal: the furies of nature and the fortunes of migrants, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2013 ; Prestholdt, Jeremy, Domesticating the world: East African consumerism and the genealogies of globalization, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2008 ; Metcalf, Thomas R., Imperial connections: India in the Indian Ocean arena, 1860–1920, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2007 ; Bose, Sugata, A hundred horizons: the Indian Ocean in the age of global empire, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006 , ch. 3.

8 The real value of world exports fell by 9.4% between 1929 and 1938. See Fitzgerald, Robert, The rise of the global company: multinationals and the making of the modern world, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015, p. 160 ; Magee, and Thompson, , Empire and globalisation, p. 241 ; Williamson, Jeffrey G., ‘Globalization, convergence, and history’, Journal of Economic History, 56, 2, 1996, p. 277 ; Boyce, Robert, The great interwar crisis and the collapse of globalization, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009 ; James, Harold, The end of globalization: lessons from the Great Depression, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001 .

9 Hancock, W. K., Survey of British Commonwealth affairs, vol. II: problems of economic policy 1918–1939, London: Oxford University Press, 1940 ; Drummond, Ian M., British economic policy and the empire 1919–1939, London: Allen & Unwin, 1972 , particularly ch. 3; Cain, P. J. and Hopkins, A. G., British imperialism: crisis and deconstruction, 1914–1990, London: Longman, 1993, pp. 112137 ; Rooth, Tim, ‘Retreat from globalization: Britain and the renewal of imperial trade between the two world wars’, in Lucia Coppolaro and Francine McKenzie, eds., A global history of trade and conflict since 1500, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, pp. 105123 .

10 Gerth, Karl, China made: consumer culture and the making of a nation, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004 ; Yeh, Wen-hsin, Shanghai splendour: economic sentiments and the making of modern China, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2007 , ch. 3; McGovern, Charles F., Sold American: consumption and citizenship, 1890–1945, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2006 ; Cohen, Lizabeth, A consumers’ republic: the politics of mass consumption in postwar America, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003 , ch. 1; Trivedi, Lisa N., ‘Visually mapping the “nation”: Swadeshi politics in nationalist India, 1920–1930’, Journal of Asian Studies, 62, 1, 2003, pp. 1141 .

11 Metropolitan Archives, CLC/B/MS16528/001, London Chamber of Commerce MSS, Far Eastern Section minute book, 6, L. H. Cripps, address to London Chamber of Commerce, 22 July 1936.

12 Dubow, ‘How British?’, p. 3; Banerjee, Sukanya, Becoming imperial citizens: Indians in the late-Victorian empire, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010, pp. 34 ; Lin, Chua Ai, ‘Nation, race, and language: discussing transnational identities in colonial Singapore, circa 1930’, in Tim Harper and Sunil Amrith, eds., Sites of Asian interaction: ideas, networks, and mobility, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014, pp. 6078 .

13 ‘The ‘Buy Indian’ movement’, Anglo-Gujarati Quarterly Journal of the Indian Merchants’ Chamber (Bombay), January 1933, pp. 203–4.

14 For an introduction to the EMB’s publicity activities, see Constantine, Stephen, ‘“Bringing the empire alive”: the Empire Marketing Board and imperial propaganda, 1926–33’, in John Mackenzie, ed., Imperialism and popular culture, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1986, pp. 200220 ; Barnes, Felicity, ‘Bringing another empire alive? The Empire Marketing Board and the construction of Dominion identity, 1926–33’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 42, 1, 2014, pp. 6185 ; O’ Connor, Kaori, ‘The King’s Christmas pudding: globalization, recipes, and the commodities of empire’, Journal of Global History, 4, 2009, pp. 127155 .

15 Institute of Commonwealth Studies, London, Stephen Tallents papers, ICS79/14/11, ‘The buy British campaign of 1931’.

16 Vakil, Mandianal H., ‘Swadeshi and non-essentials’, Anglo-Gujarati Quarterly Journal of the Indian Merchants’ Chamber (Bombay), October 1933, p. 11 ; Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (henceforth FICCI), Proceedings of 2nd annual meeting, Calcutta: FICCI, 1929, pp. 2027 ; see also FICCI, Proceedings of 7th annual meeting, Calcutta: FICCI, 1934, pp. 131133 .

17 The FCCBE was established in 1926. Between 1910 and 1926 it was known as the British Imperial Council of Commerce. For its early history, see Dilley, Andrew, ‘The politics of commerce: the Congress of Chambers of Commerce of the Empire, 1896–1914’, Sage Open, 3, 2013, pp. 112 .

18 Misra, Maria, Business, race and politics in British India, c.1850–1960, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. 1012, 198 .

19 Namjoshi, M. V. and Sabade, B. R., Chambers of Commerce in India, Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1967, p. 20 . Indian merchants were regularly barred from membership of chambers of commerce in South Africa, and the South African Manufacturers’ Association exercised a colour bar against Indian-owned firms: see Thompson, Andrew, ‘Powers and privileges of association: co-ethnic networks and the economic life of the British imperial world’, South African Historical Journal, 56, 1, 2006, pp. 5657 ; University of Cape Town Archives (henceforth UCT), Cape Chamber of Commerce and Industry papers (henceforth CCI papers), A1, BC848, South African Manufacturers Association executive committee minutes, 3 March 1909, 24 June 1926.

20 Feldman, Herbert, Karachi through a hundred years, Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1960, p. 102 .

21 Libraries and Archives Canada (henceforth LAC), Ottawa, MG28 III 56, microfilm C9837, Toronto Board of Trade report of the 1924 Chambers of Commerce of the British Empire conference.

22 FICCI, Silver jubilee souvenir 1927–1951, New Delhi: FICCI, 1957, pp. 183, 189 ; Kudaisya, Medha, The life and times of G.D. Birla, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 113, 116 .

23 Until the founding of the Indian national committee, the only non-European countries with national committees were the USA, Japan, and Indo-China, the last dominated by French colonial interests. Laureys, Henry, The foreign trade of Canada, Toronto: Macmillan Company of Canada, 1929, pp. 238239 .

24 FICCI, Silver jubilee souvenir, pp. 52, 219 ; Indian Chamber of Commerce, Calcutta, Annual report of the committee for the year 1935, Calcutta: M.P. Gandhi, 1936, p. 227 .

25 See for example ‘Developing India’s resources: case for economic nationalism’, Times of India (New Delhi), 16 July 1937, p. 14; FICCI, Proceedings of 2nd annual meeting, pp. 70–1; Indian Merchants’ Chamber: excerpts from proceedings, July 1934, p. 1.

26 G. D. Birla, speech, 2 June 1927, in League of Nations, International Labour Conference, 10th session, Geneva, 1927, vol. 1, Geneva: International Labour Office, 1927, pp. 52–3, http://www.ilo.org/public/libdoc/ilo/P/09616/09616(1927-10).pdf. A correspondents’ office was subsequently set up in Delhi in 1928. However, it initially confined its publications to English: see Mr Morarjee, speech, 9 June 1928, in League of Nations, International Labour Conference, 11th session, Geneva, 1928, vol. 1, Geneva: International Labour Office, 1928, p. 179, http://www.ilo.org/public/libdoc/ilo/P/09616/09616(1928-11).pdf (both consulted 17 July 2017).

27 FICCI, Proceedings of 2nd annual meeting, pp. 70–1; Indian Merchants’ Chamber: excerpts from proceedings, p. 1.

28 FICCI, Silver jubilee souvenir, p. 61; Anglo-Gujarati Journal of the Indian Merchants’ Chamber (Bombay), April 1927, pp. 224–9; January 1933, pp. 203–4.

29 Indian Merchants’ Chamber, Souvenir, Bombay: Indian Merchants’ Chamber, 1939, p. 29; Gerth, China made, p. 194.

30 Times of India (New Delhi), 15 February 1935, p. 4; 22 April 1937, p. 10.

31 Trivedi, ‘Visually mapping the nation’, p. 29.

32 Tomlinson, B. R., The new Cambridge history of India: the economy of modern India 1860–1970, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 108 . For a detailed discussion of cloth manufacture in India at this time, see Roy, Tirthankar, ‘Size and structure of handloom weaving in the mid-thirties’, Indian Economic & Social History Review, 25, 1, 1988 , pp. 1–24.

33 Tamagundam, Rahul, Gandhi’s khadi: a history of contention and conciliation, Hyderabad: Orient Longman, 2008, pp. 201, 256257 .

34 For divisions within the Indian business community, see Markovits, Claude, Indian business and nationalist politics 1931–1939: the indigenous capitalist class and the rise of the Congress Party, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985, pp. 2340 ; Chatterji, Basudev, Trade, tariffs and empire: Lancashire and British policy in India, 1919–39, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 320323 .

35 Markovits, , Indian business, pp. 128178 .

36 Nehru, J., ‘Zanzibar and the boycott of cloves’, Bombay Chronicle, 28 August 1937, in S. Gopal, ed., Selected works of Jawaharlal Nehru, vol. 8, New Delhi: Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Fund, 1976, pp. 714718 .

37 J. Nehru, ‘Indian sympathy for China’, November 1937, in ibid., pp. 731–2.

38 ‘Thousands celebrate Gandhi’s birthday’, Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 3 October 1938, p. 7.

39 In 1947, Malaya and Singapore had an estimated Indian population of 604,000; Burma had an Indian population of around 700,000, having been administered as part of British India until 1937. See Kondapi, C., Indians overseas, New Delhi: Indian Council of World Affairs, 1952, p. 527 .

40 The British-led Singapore and Penang chambers of commerce dated from 1837; Chinese chambers of commerce were established in Penang in 1903 and Singapore in 1906. In 1928 a resolution was passed at the All-Malaya Indian Conference calling for the establishment of Indian chambers of commerce across the country, but this had little effect: see Krishnan, R. B., Indians in Malaya, Singapore: Malayan Publishers, 1936, p. 30 .

41 ‘Indian community in Singapore’, Times of India (New Delhi), 6 May 1935, p. 16.

42 National Archives of Singapore, oral history collection, no. 000074/9 (8 July 1981), Rajabali Jumabhoy, ‘Pioneers of Singapore’; Mullaiselvi, K., ‘The Singapore Indian Chamber of Commerce 1935–1980’, academic exercise, National University of Singapore, 1988–89, pp. 1314, 17 .

43 ‘Scathing attack on Indian Association’, Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 11 January 1937, p. 3; see also the subsequent article, ‘Singapore Indians and the S.I.A.’, 16 January 1937, p. 16.

44 Jumabhoy, ‘Pioneers of Singapore’; Mullaiselvi, ‘Singapore Indian Chamber of Commerce’, p. 27.

45 ‘Singapore Indians not boycotting Japanese imported goods’, Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 27 June 1938, p. 9; Jumabhoy, ‘Pioneers of Singapore’. For Indian involvement in the importation of Japanese cloth into Southeast Asia, see Brown, Rajeswary Ampalavanar, Capital and entrepreneurship in South-east Asia, London: St Martin’s Press, 1994 , ch. 10.

46 Ai Lin, ‘Nation, race, and language’, p. 67. For the selective appropriation of a British identity by ethnic Indian and Chinese communities in Malaya around this time, see Lees, Lynn Hollen, ‘Being British in Malaya, 1890–1940’, Journal of British Studies, 48, 1, 2009, pp. 9093 .

47 Ai Lin, ‘Nation, race, and language’, pp. 69, 77.

48 M. N. Varghese, ‘The East Indian African National Congress 1914 to 1939: a study of Indian political activity in Kenya’, PhD thesis, Dalhousie University, 1976, pp. 5, 36, 204–5, 224.

49 Gerth, China made; See also Yeh, Shanghai splendour, ch. 3.

50 Nanyang Siang Pau, 2 June 1932, quoted in Hu Wen, ‘To forge a strong and wealthy China? The Buy-Chinese products movement in Singapore, 1905–1937’, MA thesis, National University of Singapore, 2004, pp. 1, 87.

51 Gerth, China made, p. 22.

52 Along with the city’s British and Indian-led merchant communities, the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce opposed efforts to establish tariffs within Malaya and the Straits Settlements, which they feared would hamper Singapore’s valuable entrepôt trade. Hiroshi, Shimizu and Hitoshi, Hirakawa, Japan and Singapore in the world economy: Japan’s economic advance into Singapore 1870–1965, London: Routledge, 1999, p. 82 .

53 Kuo, Huei-Ying, ‘Rescuing businesses through transnationalism: embedded Chinese enterprise and nationalist activities in Singapore in the 1930s Great Depression’, Enterprise & Society, 7, 1, 2006, pp. 118120 .

54 Wen, ‘To forge’, pp. 88–9.

55 Ibid., pp. 125–6.

56 Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 19 May 1932, p. 8; 20 May 1932, p. 9.

57 Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 21 April 1933, p. 7; The National Archives (henceforth TNA), Kew, BT61/55/5, Robert Boulter to Messrs Bradell Brothers, 30 January 1933; Boulter to Comptroller-General, Department of Overseas Trade, 20 May 1933.

58 Wong Chow Ming, ‘The Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce 1906–1942’, academic exercise, National University of Singapore, 1989–90, p. 7.

59 Chen, Zhongping, Modern China’s network revolution: chambers of commerce and socio-political change in the early twentieth century, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011, p. 1 .

60 For the development of the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce, see Visscher, Sikko, The business of politics and ethnicity: a history of the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Singapore: National University of Singapore Press, 2007 , ch. 1; Liu, Hong, ‘Organized Chinese transnationalism and the institutionalization of business networks: the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry as a case analysis’, Southeast Asian Studies, 37, 3, 1999, pp. 391416 .

61 National Archives of Singapore, oral history collection, no. 000301/18 (24 May 2004), MacLean, Roderick, ‘The public service’; Roderick MacLean, A pattern of change: the Singapore International Chamber of Commerce, Singapore: SICC, 2000, p. 34 .

62 Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser, 13 November 1933, p. 10; China Press (Shanghai), 11 July 1933, p. 7, 13 September 1933, p. 1.

63 Gerth, China made, p. 226.

64 Liu, ‘Organized Chinese transnationalism’, p. 399.

65 ‘Manila gives Chinese body big welcome’, China Press (Shanghai), 3 August 1936, p. 12; ‘Trade mission to South Seas returns here’, China Press, 18 November 1936, p. 3.

66 Kuo, ‘Rescuing businesses’, pp. 99–102.

67 Figures from Kagotani, Naoto, ‘Japan’s commercial penetration of South and South East Asia in the cotton trade’, in Nicholas J. White and Shigeru Akita, eds., The international order of Asia in the 1930s and 1950s, London: Routledge, 2010, p. 186 .

68 Kwartanada, Didi, ‘Competition, patriotism and collaboration: the Chinese businessmen of Yogyakarta between the 1930s and 1945’, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 33, 2, 2002, p. 268 ; Post, Peter, ‘Chinese business networks and Japanese capital in South East Asia, 1880–1940’, in Rajeswary Ampalavanar Brown, ed., Chinese business enterprise in Asia, London: Routledge, 1995, pp. 166167 .

69 Constantine, ‘Bringing the empire alive’; Barnes, ‘Bringing another empire alive?’; O’ Connor, ‘King’s Christmas pudding’; Barnes, Felicity, New Zealand’s London: a colony and its metropolis, Auckland: Auckland University Press, 2012, pp. 176188 ; Trentmann, Frank, Free trade nation: commerce, consumption, and civil society in modern Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008, pp. 228237 ; Anthony, Scott, Public relations and the making of modern Britain: Stephen Tallents and the birth of a progressive media profession, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2012 , ch. 2.

70 There is a brief discussion of empire shopping weeks in Australia in Griffiths, John, Imperial culture in Antipodean cities, 1880–1939, Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2014, pp. 159160 .

71 For a good survey of the literature, see McKenzie, Francine, Redefining the bonds of Commonwealth 1939–1948: the politics of preference, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2002, pp. 2027 .

72 Hancock, Survey, p. 149.

73 Constantine, Stephen, ‘Migrants and settlers’, in Judith M. Brown and W. Roger Louis, eds., The Oxford history of the British empire, vol. 4: the twentieth century, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. 163187 .

74 Cain and Hopkins, British imperialism, pp. 112–37.

75 For a detailed analysis of the trade agreement, see Drummond, Ian M. and Hillmer, Norman, Negotiating freer trade: the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, and the trade agreements of 1938, Waterloo, ON: Wilfred Laurier University Press, 1989 .

76 Fitzgerald, Rise of the global company, pp. 192–3, 230–1.

77 Jones, Geoffrey, ‘Origins, management and performance’, in Geoffrey Jones, ed., British multinationals: origins, management and performance, Aldershot: Gower, 1986, p. 18 .

78 ‘“Out-Britishing the Britisher”: a critique of the British Buick campaign’, J. Walter Thompson News Bulletin, 136, November 1928, pp. 13–14; LAC, Department of Trade and Commerce, RG20, vol. 204, ‘Canada calling Britain’ Buick advert, 1937.

79 For Australian opposition to using EMB posters on account of their ‘Buy British’ slogans, see Melbourne University Special Collections (henceforth MUSC), Australian British Trade Association papers (henceforth ABTA papers), 2/5, Empire Shopping Week Council minutes, 7 April 1932.

80 Examples of the use of EMB posters and slogans in the Dominions include The Argus (Melbourne), 23 May 1929, p. 5, and 27 May 1929, p. 12; Ottawa Citizen, 24 April 1928, p. 11; National Archives of South Africa, Pretoria (henceforth NASA), GG2303 1/224, ‘Buy empire goods campaign Johannesburg 1923’ leaflet. Of the 40,000 posters used in the 1939 empire shopping week in West Australia, 35,000 were produced locally: see Reid, H. C., ‘Objects of the campaign: helping Australia and the empire’, West Australian (Perth), 23 May 1939, p. 4 .

81 Coulsdon Chamber of Commerce, Coulsdon Empire Shopping Week 1st October–8th October 1927 programme, Coulsdon: Coulsdon Chamber of Commerce, 1927, p. 14 .

82 ‘Empire shopping week’, Barrier Miner, 23 May 1928, p. 2.

83 ‘Empire shopping week’, Kalgoorlie Miner, 26 May 1933, p. 4. For other examples of Australian attempts to link empire shopping week to ‘British’ loyalty, see ‘Empire shopping week’, Daily News (Perth), 3 May 1933, p. 6; ‘Australia’s part in British trade’, The Age (Melbourne), 25 May 1937, p. 16; ‘“Buy British” principle advocated: empire shopping week’, Queensland Times (Ipswich), 24 May 1937, p. 6.

84 UCT, CCI papers, BC848 A2, Cape Chamber of Industries minutes, 25 Apr. 1929, Memo. ‘Problems of publicity for South African products’, 17 Dec. 1930, 13 Sep. 1932.

85 Western Cape Archives, Cape Town, Association of Chambers of Commerce of South Africa papers, A.1909, 1/5/5, Southern executive committee minutes, 12 Oct. 1931, 11 Nov. 1931.

86 NASA, GG2303 1/224, ‘Buy empire goods – Johannesburg 1932’ pamphlet, p. 9. See also NASA, HEN2193 432/4/1, ‘Buy empire goods – South African first’ supplement, Rand Daily Mail (Johannesburg), 10 April 1933.

87 Empire shopping week advertisement, Ottawa Citizen, 24 April 1928, p. 11.

88 ‘Trade binds the British empire together’, Ottawa Citizen, 24 April 1928, p. 12. For other examples of the use of ‘British’ loyalism among the shopping week’s supporters, see also ‘British stock has made Canada sound and stable’, Calgary Daily Herald, 21 April 1928, p. 9.

89 TNA, BT90/25, ‘Empire shopping week in Canada’, n.d. [1929].

90 ‘Empire shopping week’, Montreal Gazette, 17 February 1928, p. 7.

91 TNA, BT90/25, ‘Empire shopping week in Canada’.

92 ‘Montreal’s produced in Canada exhibition’, Industrial Canada, December 1930, pp. 54–5.

93 LAC, Department of Trade and Commerce papers, RG20, file 17417, ‘Made in Canada’ file, vol. 2, pamphlets from Industrial Canada. For the Made-in-Canada campaign, see for example the following articles from the CMA’s journal, Industrial Canada: November 1930, p. 62; December 1930, pp. 52–3; October 1931, p. 56.

94 Industrial Canada, July 1930, pp. 103–4.

95 The Johannesburg and Durban shopping weeks received little attention in Cape Province newspapers: see British Trade in South Africa, June 1932, p. 5. For the problems faced in financing the campaigns, see ibid., July 1932, p. 6; December 1933, pp. 9–10.

96 UCT, CCI papers, BC848 A2, Cape Chamber of Industries minutes, 19 October 1932; see also 13 September 1932 and 18 January 1933.

97 MUSC, Australian Chamber of Manufactures (henceforth ACM) papers, 1/4/4/1, Made-in-Australia Council minutes, 6 March 1924 and 11 April 1925.

98 MUSC, ABTA papers, 2/3/5, Victorian Council, Federal Executive minutes, 12 April 1929 and 26 May 1930.

99 MUSC, ABTA papers, 2/5, Empire Shopping Week Council minutes, 9 March 1937 and 22 June 1937.

100 MUSC, ACM papers, 1/4/4/1, Made-in-Australia Council minutes, 26 May 1928.

101 TNA, CO758/94/6, Managers’ reports on ‘Buy British’ campaign, 23 February 1932.

102 TNA, CO759/94/6, T. Walton (proprietor of T. Walton Ltd, Covent Garden fruit merchants) to Stephen Tallents, 22 February 1932.

103 ‘Why women buy Japanese goods’, Australian Women’s Weekly, 10 March 1934, p. 4; see also 3 March 1934, p. 15.

104 For claims that trade publicity campaigns had encouraged British retailers to stock more produce from the Dominions, see Advertisers’ Weekly, 24 March 1938, p. 460; Churchill College, Cambridge, Amery papers, AMEL5/13, Empire Marketing Board, The Empire Marketing Board in May 1932, London: HMSO, 1932, p. 14.

105 LAC, Department of Trade and Commerce papers, RG20, vol. 204, ‘Canada calling Great Britain’ leaflet, 1936. The Australian government spent similarly large sums on trade promotion in the UK, making personal contact with 25,000 British retailers: see NASA, HEN2185 432/1/10, ‘Memo. on the question of advertising South African agricultural products in the domestic and export markets’, n.d. [c. 1937], p. 3.

106 Hill, O. Mary, Canada’s salesman to the world: the Department of Trade and Commerce, 1892–1939, Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1977, pp. 352357 . The EMB’s practice of promoting the King’s empire Christmas pudding derived from a 1925 campaign by the Australian Dried Fruit Board to encourage UK consumers to buy Australian rather than Californian raisins. O’ Connor, ‘King’s Christmas pudding’, p. 141.

107 Manchester Guardian, 30 April 1937, p. 10, and 11 June 1937, p. 12; Barnes, ‘Bringing another empire alive?’, p. 79.

108 For portrayals of the Dominions in EMB posters, see Barnes, , ‘Bringing another empire alive?’, pp. 6668 .

109 New Zealand producer boards made use of the S.L.A. Martin agency in London: see Barnes, , New Zealand’s London, pp. 155156 .

110 Barnes, ‘Bringing another empire alive?’, pp. 65–8, 71–3.

111 Ibid., p. 79.

112 Sugihara, Kaoru, ‘The formation of an industrialization-oriented monetary order in East Asia’, in White and Akita, International order of Asia, pp. 6475 .

113 Darwin, John, The empire project: the rise and fall of the British world-system, 1830–1970, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009, pp. 393–406, 450461 .

114 See, for example, Vakil, ‘Swadeshi and non-essentials’.

* I am grateful to audiences who gave feedback on earlier drafts of this article at various seminars in Australia, New Zealand, and the UK. In particular I would like to thank Andrew Dilley, Andrew Thompson, Richard Toye, and the editors and anonymous reviewers of this journal for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of this article.

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Buying for Britain, China, or India? Patriotic trade, ethnicity, and market in the 1930s British empire/Commonwealth*

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