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Till Fabric and Deformational Structures in Drumlins Near Waukesha, Wisconsin, U.S.A.

  • Scott D. Stanford (a1) and David M. Mickelson (a1)

Abstract

Deep gravel-pit exposures reveal the distribution and structure of till and underlying sand and gravel in drumlins near Waukesha, Wisconsin. The subglacial sediment is interpreted to have moved laterally into the drumlin sites because the till thickens from the margin to the core of the drumlins, the stone orientation in the till is perpendicular and oblique to ice flow on the drumlin margins, and recumbent isoclinal folds occur in sand on the drumlin margins with axes parallel to the drumlin axes. The resulting accumulations of sediment presented obstacles to ice flow and were streamlined into the minimum-drag drumlin shape by erosion on the margins and by remolding of material in the core of the drumlins. These drumlin nuclei may have formed at spots where there was low effective stress on the bed. The subglacial sediment became mobile as a result of high pore pressure that may have developed as ground water and subglacial melt water were trapped behind a frozen bed at the ice margin. Under certain conditions, however, lateral sediment flow might also have occurred when the sediment was frozen.

Résumé

Des gravières entaillant profondément des drumlins près de Waukesha (Wisconsin) montrent la répartition et la structure des matériaux morainiques et des sables et graviers sous-jacents. Le sédiment sous glaciaire semble avoir été amené latéralement à l’emplacement du drumlin, car: l’épaisseur de moraine croît du bord vers le centre du drumlin, les pierres de la moraine sont perpendiculaires ou obliques par rapport au mouvement de la glace sur les bords du drumlin; le sable montre des plis isoclinaux couchés dont l’axe est parallèle à celui du drumlin sur les bords de ce dernier. Les accumulations de sédiments représentant un obstacle à l’écoulement de la glace ont été laminés par érosion sur les bords et remaniement du matériel formant le noyau du drumlin pour atteindre la forme de drumlin qui offre le minimum de résistance. Ces germes de drumlin peuvent s’être formés là où la pression normale sur le lit était faible; le sédiment sous glaciaire devenent mobile lorsque la pression interstitielle est forte, ce qui peut se produire lorsque les eaux souterraines et les eaux de fusion de la glace sont emprisonnées derrière un lit gelé au front du glacier. Néanmoins, dans certaines conditions, un écoulement latéral du sédiment peut aussi avoir eu lieu lorsque le sédiment était gelé.

Zusammenfassung

Aufschlüsse in tiefen Kiesgruben lassen die Verteilung und Struktur von Schutt sowie von darunterliegendem Sand und Kies in Drumlins bei Waukesha, Wisconsin, erkennen. Es wird angenommen, dass das subglaziale Sediment sich seitlich in die Drumlinlagen geschoben hat, da der Schutt vom Rande zum Kern der Drumlins an Dicke zunimmt, da die Orientierung der Steine im Schutt senkrecht und schräg zum Eisfluss an den Drumlinrändern verläuft und da liegende, isoklinale Falten im Sand an den Drumlinrändern mit Achsen parallel zu den Drumlinachsen auftreten. Die sich hieraus ergebenden Anhäufungen von Sediment setzten dem Eisfluss Hindernisse entgegen und erhielten durch Erosion an den Rändern und durch Nachschub von Material zum Kern der Drumlins die stromlinienförmige Drumlinform geringsten Widerstandes. Diese Drumlinkerne dürften sich an Stellen gebildet haben, wo niedrige Normalspannungen am Bett herrschten. Das subglaziale Sediment wurde infolge hohen Porendruckes beweglich, der sich entwickelte, als Grundwasser und subglaziales Schmelzwasser hinter einem gefrorenen Bett am Eisrand eingeschlossen war. Doch mag unter gewissen Bedingungen auch seitlicher Sedimentfluss aufgetreten sein, wenn das Sediment gefroren war.

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References

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Till Fabric and Deformational Structures in Drumlins Near Waukesha, Wisconsin, U.S.A.

  • Scott D. Stanford (a1) and David M. Mickelson (a1)

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