Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The tertiary creep of polycrystalline ice: experimental evidence for stress-dependent levels of strain-rate enhancement

  • Adam Treverrow (a1), William F. Budd (a2), Tim H. Jacka (a1) and Roland C. Warner (a1) (a3)

Abstract

Laboratory creep deformation experiments have been conducted on initially isotropic laboratory-made samples of polycrystalline ice. Steady-state tertiary creep rates, , were determined at strains exceeding 10% in either uniaxial-compression or simple-shear experiments. Isotropic minimum strain rates, , determined at ˜1 % strain, provide a reference for comparing the relative magnitude of tertiary creep rates in shear and compression through the use of strain-rate enhancement factors, E, defined as the ratio of corresponding tertiary and isotropic minimum creep rates, i.e. . The magnitude of strain-rate enhancement in simple shear was found to exceed that in uniaxial compression by a constant factor of 2.3. Results of experiments conducted at octahedral shear stresses of to = 0.040.80 MPa indicate a creep power-law stress exponent of n = 3 for isotropic minimum creep rates and n = 3.5 for tertiary creep rates. The difference in stress exponents for minimum and tertiary creep regimes can be interpreted as a t 0 stress-dependent level of strain-rate enhancement, i.e. .The implications of these results for deformation in complex multicomponent stress configurations and at stresses below those used in the current experiments are discussed.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The tertiary creep of polycrystalline ice: experimental evidence for stress-dependent levels of strain-rate enhancement
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The tertiary creep of polycrystalline ice: experimental evidence for stress-dependent levels of strain-rate enhancement
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The tertiary creep of polycrystalline ice: experimental evidence for stress-dependent levels of strain-rate enhancement
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Alley, RB (1992) Flow-law hypotheses for ice-sheet modeling. J. Glaciol., 38(129), 245-256
Azuma, N and Goto-Azuma, K (1996) An anisotropic flow law for ice-sheet ice and its implications. Ann. Glaciol., 23, 202-208
Azuma, N and Higashi, A (1984) Mechanical properties of Dye 3 Greenland deep ice cores. Ann. Glaciol., 5, 1-8
Azuma, N and 6 others (1999) Textures and fabrics in the Dome F (Antarctica) ice core. Ann. Glaciol., 29, 163-168
Bouchez, JL and Duval, P (1982) The fabric of polycrystalline ice deformed in simple shear: experiments in torsion, natural deformation and geometrical interpretation. Textures Microstruct., 5(3), 171-190
Budd, WF (1972) The development of crystal orientation fabrics in moving ice. Z Gletscherkd. Glazialgeol., 8(1-2), 65-105
Budd, WF and Jacka, TH (1989) A review of ice rheology for ice sheet modelling. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 16(2), 107-144
Calov, R and 9 others (2010) Results from the Ice-Sheet Model Intercomparison Project-Heinrich Event INtercOmparison (IS- MIP HEINO). J. Glaciol., 56(197), 371-383
Castelnau, O, Duval, P, Lebensohn, R and Canova, GR (1996) Viscoplastic modeling of texture development in polycrystalline ice with a self-consistent approach: comparison with bound estimates. J. Geophys. Res., 101(B6), 13 851-13 868
Cuffey, KM and Paterson, WSB (2010) The physics of glaciers, 4th edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford
Dahl-Jensen, D and Gundestrup, NS (1987) Constitutive properties of ice at Dye 3, Greenland. IAHS Publ. 170 (Symposium at Vancouver - The Physical Basis of Ice Sheet Modelling), 31-43
De La Chapelle, S, Milsch, H, Castelnau, O and Duval, P (1999) Compressive creep of ice containing a liquid intergranular phase: rate-controlling processes in the dislocation creep regime. Geophys. Res. Lett.,26(2), 251-254
DiPrinzio, CL, Wilen, LA, Alley, RB, Fitzpatrick, JJ, Spencer, MK and Gow, AJ (2005) Fabric and texture at Siple Dome, Antarctica. J. Glaciol.,51(173), 281-290
Durand, G and 8 others (2007) Change in ice rheology during climate variations - implications for ice flow modelling and dating of the EPICA Dome C core. Climate Past, 3(1), 155-167
Duval, P (1979) Creep and recrystallisation of polycrystalline ice. Bull. Mineral, 102(2-3), 80-85
Duval, P (1981) Creep and fabrics of polycrystalline ice under shear and compression. J. Glaciol.,27(95), 129-140
Duval, P, Ashby, MF and Anderman, I (1983) Rate-controlling processes in the creep of polycrystalline ice. J. Phys. Chem.,87(21), 4066-4074
Gagliardini, O, Gillet-Chaulet, F and Montagnat, M (2009) A review of anisotropic polar ice models: from crystal to ice-sheet flow models. In Hondoh T ed. Physics of ice core records II. Hokkaido University Press, Sapporo, 149-166
Gao, XQ (1989) Laboratory studies of the development of anisotropic crystal structure and the flow properties of ice. (PhD thesis, University of Melbourne)
Gao, XQ and Jacka, TH (1987) The approach to similar tertiary creep rates for Antarctic core ice and laboratory prepared ice. J. Phys. IV [Paris], 48(3), Colloq. C1, 289-295 (Supplement au 3)
Gao, X, Jacka, TH and Budd, WF (1989) The development of ice crystal anisotropy in shear and comparisons of flow properties in shear and compression. In Guo K ed. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Antarctic Research. Chinese Committee on Antarctic Research, China Ocean Press, Beijing, 32-40
Gillet-Chaulet, F, Gagliardini, O, Meyssonnier, J, Montagnat, M and Castelnau, O (2005) A user-friendly anisotropic flow law for ice- sheet modelling. J. Glaciol.,51(172), 3-14
Glen, JW (1955) The creep of polycrystalline ice. Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 228 (1175), 519-538
Glen, JW (1958) The flow law of ice: a discussion of the assumptions made in glacier theory, their experimental foundation and consequences. IASH Publ. 47 (Symposium at Chamonix 1958 - Physics of the Movement of the Ice), 171-183
Gow, AJ and Engelhardt, H (2000) Preliminary analysis of ice cores from Siple Dome, West Antarctica. In Hondoh T ed. Physics of ice core records. Hokkaido University Press, Sapporo, 63-82
Gow, AJ and Williamson, T (1976) Rheological implications of the internal structure and crystal fabrics of the West Antarctic ice sheet as revealed by deep core drilling at Byrd Station. CRREL Rep. 76-35
Gow, AJ and 6 others (1997) Physical and structural properties of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice cores: a review. J. Geophys. Res.,102(C12), 26 559-26 575
Greve, R and Blatter, H eds (2009) Dynamics of ice sheets and glaciers. Springer-Verlag, Dordrecht
Greve, R, Placidi, L and Seddik, H (2009) A continuum-mechanical model for the flow of anisotropic polar ice. In Hondoh, T ed. Physics of ice core records II. Hokkaido University Press, Sapporo, 137-148 (Supplement Issue of Low Temperature Science 68)
Hooke, RLeB (2005) Principles of glacier mechanics, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Hutter, K, Legerer, F and Spring, U (1981) First-order stresses and deformations in glaciers and ice sheets. J. Glaciol., 27(96), 227-270
Jacka, TH (1984) The time and strain required for development of minimum strain rates in ice. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 8(3), 261-268
Jacka, TH and Li, J (1994) The steady-state crystal size of deforming ice. Ann. Glaciol.,20, 13-18
Jacka, TH and Li, J (2000) Flow rates and crystal orientation fabrics in compression of polycrystalline ice at low temperatures and stresses. In Hondoh T ed. Physics of ice core records. Hokkaido University Press, Sapporo, 83-102
Jacka, TH and Lile, RC (1984) Sample preparation techniques and compression apparatus for ice flow studies. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 8(3), 235-240
Jacka, TH and Maccagnan, M (1984) Ice crystallographic and strain rate changes with strain in compression and extension. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 8(3), 269-286
Jaeger, JC (1962) Elasticity, fracture and flow: with engineering and geological applications, 2nd edn. Methuen, London
Jones, SJ and Chew, HAM (1983) Effect of sample and grain size on the compressive strength of ice. Ann. Glaciol., 4, 129-132
Kamb, B (1972) Experimental recrystallization of ice under stress. In Heard HC, Borg IY, Carter NL and Raleigh CB eds. Flow and fracture of rocks. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 211-241
Kirby, SH, Durham, WB, Beeman, ML, Heard, HC and Daley, MA (1987) Inelastic properties of ice Ih at low temperatures and high pressures. J. Phys. IV [Paris], 48(3), Colloq. Cl, 227-232 (Supplement au 3)
Li, J (1995) Interrelation between flow properties and crystal structure of snow and ice. (PhD thesis, University of Melbourne)
Li, J and Jacka, TH (1998) Correspondence. Horizontal shear rate of ice initially exhibiting vertical compression fabrics. J. Glaciol., 44(148), 670-672
Li, J, Jacka, TH and Budd, WF (1996) Deformation rates in combined compression and shear for ice which is initially isotropic and after the development of strong anisotropy. Ann. Glaciol., 23, 247-252
Li, J, Jacka, TH and Morgan, V (1998) Crystal-size and microparticle record in the ice core from Dome Summit South, Law Dome, East Antarctica. Ann. Glaciol., 27, 343-348
Li, J, Jacka, TH and Budd, WF (2000) Strong single-maximum crystal fabrics developed in ice undergoing shear with unconstrained normal deformation. Ann. Glaciol., 30, 88-92
Lile, RC (1978) The effect of anisotropy on the creep of polycrystalline ice. J. Glaciol., 21(85), 475-483
Lile, RC (1984) The flow law for isotropic and anisotropic ice at low strain rates. ANARE Sci. Rep. 132
Marshall, SJ (2005) Recent advances in understanding ice sheet dynamics. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 240(2), 191-204
Martin, C, Gudmundsson, GH, Pritchard, HD and Gagliardini, O (2009) On the effects of anisotropic rheology on ice flow, internal structure, and the age-depth relationship at ice divides. J. Geophys. Res., 114(F4), F04001 (doi: 10.1029/2008JF001204)
Montagnat, M, Durand, G and Duval, P (2009) Recrystallization processes in granular ice. In Hondoh T ed. Physics of ice core records II. Hokkaido University Press, Sapporo (Supplement Issue of Low Temperature Science 68)
Morgan, V, Wookey, CW, Li, J, Van Ommen, TD, Skinner, W and Fitzpatrick, MF (1997) Site information and initial results from deep ice drilling on Law Dome, Antarctica. J. Glaciol., 43(143), 3-10
Morgan, V, Van Ommen, TD, Elcheikh, A and Li, J (1998) Variations in shear deformation rate with depth at Dome Summit South, Law Dome, East Antarctica. Ann. Glaciol., 27, 135-139
Morland, LW and Staroszczyk, R (2003) Strain-rate formulation of ice fabric evolution. Ann. Glaciol., 37, 35-39
Nye, JF (1957) The distribution of stress and velocity in glaciers and ice-sheets. Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 239(1216), 113-133
Paterson, WSB (1977) Secondary and tertiary creep of glacier ice as measured by borehole closure rates. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys.,15(1), 47-55
Pattyn, F and 20 others (2008) Benchmark experiments for higher-order and full-Stokes ice sheet models (ISMIP-HOM). Cryosphere, 2(2), 95-108
Pettit, EC and Waddington, ED (2003) Ice flow at low deviatoric stress. J. Glaciol., 49(166), 359-369
Pettit, EC and 6 others (2011) The crossover stress, anisotropy and the ice flow law at Siple Dome, West Antarctica. J. Glaciol.,57(201), 39-52
Pimienta, P and Duval, P (1987) Rate controlling processes in the creep of polar glacier ice. J. Phys. IV [Paris], 48(3), Colloq. C1, 243-248 (Supplement au 3)
Placidi, L and Hutter, K (2006) An anisotropic flow law for incompressible polycrystalline materials. Z Angew. Math. Phys.,57(1), 160-181
Placidi, L, Hutter, K and Faria, SH (2006) A critical review of the mechanics of polycrystalline ice. GAMM-Mitt., 29(1), 80-117
Placidi, L, Greve, R, Seddik, H and Faria, SH (2010) Continuum- mechanical, anisotropic flow model for polar ice masses, based on an anisotropic flow enhancement factor. Contin. Mech. Thermodyn., 22(3), 221-237
Poirier, JP (1985) Creep of crystals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Rigsby, GP (1958) Effect of hydrostatic pressure on velocity of shear deformation on single ice crystals. J. Glaciol., 3(24), 273-278
Russell-Head, DS (1979) Ice sheet flow from borehole and laboratory studies. (MSc thesis, University of Melbourne)
Russell-Head, DS (1985) Shear deformation of ice to large strains. ANARE Res. Note 28, 118-124
Russell-Head, DS and Budd, WF (1979) Ice-sheet flow properties derived from bore-hole shear measurements combined with ice- core studies. J. Glaciol., 24(90), 117-130
Schulson, EM and Duval, P (2009) Creep and fracture of ice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Seddik, H, Greve, R, Placidi, L, Hamann, I and Gagliardini, O (2008) Application of a continuum-mechanical model for the flow of anisotropic polar ice to the EDML core, Antarctica. J. Glaciol.,54(187), 631-642
Solomon, S and 7 others (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Song, M, Cole, DM and Baker, I(2005) Creep of granular ice with and without dispersed particles. J. Glaciol., 51(173), 210-218
Steinemann, S (1954) Flow and recrystallization of ice. IASH Publ. 39 (General Assembly of Rome 1954 - Snow and Ice, Vol. 4), 449-462
Steinemann, S (1958a) Resultats exprsrimentaux sur la dynamique de la glace et leur correlations avec le mouvement et la petrographie des glaciers. IASH Publ. 47 (Symposium at Chamonix 1958 - Physics of the Movement of the Ice), 184-198
Steinemann, S (1958b) Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Plas- tizitat von Eis. Beitr. Geol. Schweiz 10
Thorsteinsson, T (2001) An analytical approach to deformation of anisotropic ice-crystal aggregates. J. Glaciol., 47(158), 507-516
Thorsteinsson, T (2002) Fabric development with nearest-neighbour interaction and dynamic recrystallization. J. Geophys. Res.,107(B1), 2014 (doi: 10.1019/2001JB000244)
Thorsteinsson, T, Kipfstuhl, J and Miller, H (1997) Textures and fabrics in the GRIP ice core. J. Geophys. Res., 102(C12), 26 583-26 599
Thorsteinsson, T, Waddington, ED, Taylor, KC, Alley, RB and Blankenship, DD (1999) Strain-rate enhancement at Dye 3, Greenland. J. Glaciol., 45(150), 338-345
Thwaites, RJ, Wilson, CJL and McCray, AP (1984) Relationship between bore-hole closure and crystal fabrics in Antarctic ice core from Cape Folger. J. Glaciol., 30(105), 171-179
Tison, JL, Thorsteinsson, T, Lorrain, RD and Kipfstuhl, J (1994) Origin and development of textures and fabrics in basal ice at Summit, central Greenland. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 125(3-4), 421-437
Treverrow, A (2009) The flow of polycrystalline anisotropic ice: laboratory and model studies. (PhD thesis, University of Tasmania)
Van der Veen, CJ and Whillans, IM (1994) Development of fabric in ice. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 22(2), 171-195
Wakahama, G (1974) On the structure and texture of deep ice cores from the Amery Ice Shelf, Wilkes Dome and Cape Folger, Antarctica. In Kuroiwa D ed. Physical and chemical studies on ice from glaciers and ice sheets. Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 99-108 [In Japanese]
Wang, W, Warner, RC and Budd, WF (2002) Ice-flow properties at Dome Summit South, Law Dome, East Antarctica. Ann. Glaciol.,35, 567-573
Warner, RC, Jacka, TH, Li, J and Budd, WF (1999) Tertiary flow relations for compression and shear components in combined stress tests on ice. In Hutter, K, Wang, Y and Beer, H eds. Advances in cold-region thermal engineering and sciences: technological, environmental, and climatological impact. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 259-270

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed