Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Surface Movement, Hydrological Change and Equilibrium Flow on Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska

  • Calvin J. Heusser (a1) and Melvin G. Marcus (a2)

Abstract

Lemon Creek Glacier served as the focus of attention of the Juneau Ice Field Research Project from 1953 through 1958. During the International Geophysical Year, it represented one of the glaciological stations in the North American network. This paper presents some of the results of these studies, its purposes being (1) to discuss the 1953–58 annual hydrological budgets, and (2) to test Nielsen’s equations for the equilibrium glacier using 1957 and 1958 movement and hydrological data.

It is found that each budget year for the period studied shows a deficit, except 1954–55 which registered a pronounced surplus. The net deficit amounts to 10.32×106 m.3 of water. The 1956–57 budget was only slightly negative (0.82×106m.3) but that for 1957–58 was strongly negative (8.96×106 m.3). Surface flow measurements were made along five transverse profiles, two of which were plotted over one full year. It is believed that the one-year measurements provide a more accurate and realistic picture of glacier flow than is normally available from short summer surveys. Thu glacier appears to be close to equilibrium and to behave in the manner predicted by Nielsen’s theory of equilibrium flow.

Résumé

Le Lemon Creek Glacier a été le centre d’intérêt du Juneau Ice Field Research Project de 1953 à 1958. Durant l’Année Géophysique Internationale, il représentait une des stations glaciologiques du réseau nord-américain. Cet article présente quelques résultats de ces études, ses buts étant: 1°) de discuter les budgets hydrologiques annuels de 1953 à 1958; 2°) de tester les équations de Nielsen pour tm glacier en équilibre en utilisant les données de l’hydrologie et du mouvement de 1957 et 1958.

Nous avons trouvé que chaque budget annuel pour la période étudiée montre un déficit, à l’exception de l’année 1954–55, durant laquelle on a enregistré un surplus prononcé. Le déficit net s’élève à 10,3200×106 m3 d’eau. Le budget de 1956–57 était légèrement négatif (0,82×106 m3), mais celui de 1957–58 était fortement négatif (8,96×106 m3). Des mesures de l’écoulement en surface ont été faites le long de 5 profils transversaux parmi lesquels 2 ont été réalisés au-delà d’une année complète. On pense que les mesures annuelles donnent une image plus précise et plus réaliste de l’écoulement du glacier que celles provenant de courtes campagnes d’été. Le glacier semble être près de l’équilibre et se comporter de la façon prévue par la théorie de Nielsen sur l’écoulement en équilibre.

Zusammenfassung

Beim Juneau Ice Field—Forschungsunternehmen 1953–58 stand der Lemon Creek Glacier im Mittelpunkt des Interesses. Während des Int. Geophysikalischen Jahres war er eine der glaziologischen Stationen im Beobachtungsnetz Nordamerikas. Die vorliegende Arbeit enthält einige Ergebnisse dieser Untersuchungen, deren Zweck es war, (1) den hydrologischen Jahreshaushalt von 1953–58 zu ermitteln und (2) die Gültigkeit von Nielsen’s Gleichungen für einen Gletscher im Gleichgewicht mit Hilfe der Bewegungen und hydrologischen Daten von 1957 und 1958 zu überprüfen.

Für jedes Haushaltsjahr der Beobachtungsperiode ergibt sich ein Defizit,—mit Ausnahme von 1954–55 wo ein erheblicher Überschuss auftrat. Das Netto-Defizit beträgt 10,32×106 m3 Wasser. Der Haushalt 1956–57 war nur schwach negativ (0,82×106 m3), aber 1957–58 trat ein starker Verlust auf (8,96×106 m3). In 5 Querprofilen wurden Fliessbewegungen an der Oberfläche gemessen; in zwei davon erstreckten sich die Messungen über ein voiles Jahr. Es wird angenommen, dass die Jahresmessungen ein genaueres und zutreffenderes Bild der Gletscherbewegung vermitteln als es gewöhnlich aus kurzen Sommerbeobachtungen gewonnen werden kann. Der Gletscher scheint annähernd im Gleichgewicht zu sein und sich gemäss Nielsen’s Theorie für die Gleichgewichtsbewegung zu verhalten.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Surface Movement, Hydrological Change and Equilibrium Flow on Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Surface Movement, Hydrological Change and Equilibrium Flow on Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Surface Movement, Hydrological Change and Equilibrium Flow on Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Ahlmann, H. W. 1953. Glacier variations and climatic fluctuations. New York. American Geographical Society. (Bowman Memorial Lectures, Series 3.)
American Geographical Society. 1953–58. Juneau Ice Field Research Project. American Geographical Society. Juneau Ice Field Research Project. Progress and Semi-Annual Status Reports.
American Geographical Society. 1960. Nine glacier maps: northwestern North America. American Geographical Society. Special Publication No. 34, [v, 37] p. plus 9 separate map sheets.
Case, J. B. 1958. Mapping of glaciers in Alaska. Photogrammetric Engineering, Vol. 24, No. 4, p. 81521.
Field, W. O. Miller, M. M. 1950. The Juneau Ice Field Research Project. Geographical Review, Vol. 40, No. 2, p. 17990.
Hubley, R. C. 1955. Measurements of diurnal variations in snow albedo on Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska. Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 2, No. 18, p. 56063.
Hubley, R. C. 1957. An analysis of surface energy during the ablation season on Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska. Transactions. American Geophysical Union, Vol. 38, No. 1, p. 6885.
LaChapelle, E. R. 1954. Snow studies on the Juneau Ice Field. American Geographical Society. Juneau Ice Field Research Project. Report No. 9.
Miller, M. M. 1954. Juneau Ice Field Research Project, Alaska, 1950 summer field season. American Geographical Society. Juneau Ice Field Research Project. Report No. 7.
Nielsen, L. E. 1955. Regimen and flow of ice in equilibrium glaciers. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. Vol. 66, No. 1, p. 18.
Nielsen, L. E. 1957. Preliminary study on the regimen and movement of the Taku Glacier, Alaska. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, Vol. 68, No. 2, p. 17180.
Sharp, R. P. 1949. Status report of glaciological work on the Seward Ice Field, Yukon Territory. American Alpine Journal. Vol. 7, No. 2, p. 17883.
Thiel, E. and others. 1957. The thickness of Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska, as determined by gravity measurements. by E. Thiel E. LaChapelle J. Behrendt. Transactions. American Geophysical Union, Vol. 38, No. 5, p. 74549.
Wilson, C. R. 1959. Surface movement and its relationship to the average annual hydrological budget of Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska. Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 3, No. 25, p. 35561.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed