Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Spatiotemporal dynamics of snow erosion, deposition and horizontal mass flux

  • PHILIP CRIVELLI (a1), ENRICO PATERNA (a1) and MICHAEL LEHNING (a1) (a2)
Abstract

The quantification of snow transport, both in wind tunnels and the field, apply particle counting methods limited to punctual sampling of relatively small volumes. Particle counting can only capture horizontal mass fluxes, failing to measure snow erosion or deposition. Herein, we present a novel low-cost sensor tool, based on a Microsoft Kinect, adapted to capture snow surface changes during snow drifting at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions. In the wind tunnel setting of these experiments we observe a balance between erosion and deposition at low wind speeds, while erosion is dominant at higher wind speeds. Significant differences in power spectral densities of surface mass flux and horizontal particle mass flux are observed. We show that for the saltation-length-scale parameter λ = 1, the integrated particle flux can be used to estimate the total surface mass flux in the wind tunnel. This provides an important basis to interpret mass flux measurements in the field.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Spatiotemporal dynamics of snow erosion, deposition and horizontal mass flux
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Spatiotemporal dynamics of snow erosion, deposition and horizontal mass flux
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Spatiotemporal dynamics of snow erosion, deposition and horizontal mass flux
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Correspondence: Philip Crivelli <philip.crivelli@slf.ch>
Footnotes
Hide All
*

Present address: WSL-Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF Flüelastrasse 11CH-7260 Davos DorfSwitzerland.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Bagnold, RA (1937) The transport of sand by wind. Geogr. J., 89(5), 409438, 14754959
Bagnold, RA (1941) The physics of wind blown sand and desert dunes. Methuen, London, 265(10), 256 pp.
Clifton, A, Rüedi, JD and Lehning, M (2006) Snow saltation threshold measurements in a drifting-snow wind tunnel. J. Glaciol., 52(179), 585596 (doi: 10.3189/172756506781828430)
Comola, F and Lehning, M (2017) Energy and momentum conserving model of splash entrainment in sand and snow saltation. Geophys. Res. Lett. (doi: 10.1002/2016GL071822), 2016GL071822.
Dolatabadi, E, Taati, B and Mihailidis, A (2014) Vision-based approach for long-term mobility monitoring: single case study following total hip replacement. J. Rehabil. Res. Dev., 51(7), 11651176 (doi: 10.1682/jrrd.2013.12.0263)
Dong, Z and Qian, G (2007) Characterizing the height profile of the flux of wind-eroded sediment. Environmental Geology, 51(5), 835845 (doi: 10.1007/s00254-006-0363-5)
Dong, Z, Liu, X, Wang, H, Zhao, A and Wang, X (2003) The flux profile of a blowing sand cloud: a wind tunnel investigation. Geomorphology, 49(3-4), 219230 (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-555X(02)00170-8)
Doorschot, JJ, Lehning, M and Vrouwe, A (2004) Field measurements of snow-drift threshold and mass fluxes, and related model simulations. Boundary. Layer. Meteorol., 113(3), 347368 (doi: 10.1007/s10546-004-8659-z)
Essmaeel, K, Gallo, L, Damiani, E, De Pietro, G and Dipanda, A (2012) Temporal denoising of kinect depth data. In Signal Image Technology and Internet Based Systems (SITIS), 2012 Eighth International Conference on, 47–52, IEEE (doi: 10.1109/SITIS.2012.18).
Essmaeel, K, Gallo, L, Damiani, E, De Pietro, G and Dipanda, A (2014) Comparative evaluation of methods for filtering kinect depth data. Multimed. Tools. Appl., 74(17), 124 (doi: 10.1007/s11042-014-1982-6)
Filhol, S and Sturm, M (2015) Snow bedforms: A review, new data, and a formation model. J. Geophys. Res.: Earth Surf., 120(9), 16451669 (doi: 10.1002/2015JF003529), 2015JF003529
Gillette, DA and Walker, TR (1977) Characteristics of airborne particles produced by wind erosion of sandy soil, high plains of west Texas. Soil Science 123(2), 97110.
Gordon, M and Taylor, PA (2009) Measurements of blowing snow, part i: particle shape, size distribution, velocity, and number flux at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. Cold. Reg. Sci. Technol., 55(1), 6374 (doi: 10.1016/j.coldregions.2008.05.001)
Gordon, M, Savelyev, S and Taylor, PA (2009) Measurements of blowing snow, part ii: mass and number density profiles and saltation height at Franklin bay, nwt, Canada. Cold. Reg. Sci. Technol., 55(1), 7585 (doi: 10.1016/j.coldregions.2008.07.001)
Gromke, C, Manes, C, Walter, B, Lehning, M and Guala, M (2011) Aerodynamic roughness length of fresh snow. Boundary. Layer. Meteorol., 141(1), 2134 (doi: 10.1007/s10546-011-9623-3)
Gromke, C, Horender, S, Walter, B and Lehning, M (2014) Snow particle characteristics in the saltation layer. J. Glaciol., 60(221), 431439 (doi: 10.3189/2014JoG13J079)
Groot Zwaaftink, C and 6 others (2013) Event-driven deposition of snow on the Antarctic plateau: analyzing field measurements with snowpack. Cryosphere, 7(1), 333347 (doi: 10.5194/tc-7-333-2013)
Grünewald, T, Schirmer, M, Mott, R and Lehning, M (2010) Spatial and temporal variability of snow depth and ablation rates in a small mountain catchment. Cryosphere, 4(2), 215225 (doi: 10.5194/tc-4-215-2010)
Guala, M, Manes, C, Clifton, A and Lehning, M (2008) On the saltation of fresh snow in a wind tunnel: profile characterization and single particle statistics. J. Geophys. Res.: Earth Surf. (2003–2012), 113(F3) (doi: 10.1029/2007JF000975)
Kawamura, R (1948) Sand movement by wind. Kagaku, 18(11), 2430
Kawamura, R (1951) Study on sand movement by wind(relationship between sand flow and wind friction, and vertical density distribution of sand). Tokyo Daigaku Rikogaku Kenkyusho Hokoku,(Tokyo), 5(3), 95112
Kok, JF, Parteli, EJ, Michaels, TI and Karam, DB (2012) The physics of wind-blown sand and dust. Rep. Prog. Phys., 75(10), 106901.
Mankoff, KD and Russo, TA (2012) The kinect: A low-cost, high-resolution, short-range 3d camera. Earth. Surf. Process. Landf., 38(9), 926936
Meister, R (1987) Wind systems and snow transport in alpine topography. IAHS Publ, 162, 265279
Meister, R (1988) Influence of strong winds on snow distribution and avalanche activity. Ann. Glaciol., 13, 195201
Michaux, JL, Naaim-Bouvet, F, Naaim, M, Lehning, M and Guyomarc'h, G (2002) Effect of unsteady wind on drifting snow: first investigations. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 2(3/4), 129136
Miller, RL and 10 others (2006) Mineral dust aerosols in the NASA Goddard institute for space sciences model atmospheric general circulation model. J Geophys Res Atmos., 111(D6) (doi: 10.1029/2005JD005796), d06208.
Naaim-Bouvet, F, Bellot, H and Naaim, M (2010) Back analysis of drifting-snow measurements over an instrumented mountainous site. Ann. Glaciol., 51, 207217 (doi: 10.3189/172756410791386661)
Naaim-Bouvet, F, Naaim, M, Bellot, H and Nishimura, K (2011) Wind and drifting-snow gust factor in an alpine context. Ann. Glaciol., 52(58), 223230 (doi: 10.3189/172756411797252112)
Nalpanis, P, Hunt, JCR and Barrett, CF (1993) Saltating particles over flat beds. J. Fluid. Mech., 251, 661685 (doi: 10.1017/S0022112093003568)
Nicholson, LI, Pȩtlicki, M, Partan, B and MacDonell, S (2016) 3-d surface properties of glacier penitentes over an ablation season, measured using a microsoft xbox kinect. Cryosphere, 10(5), 18971913
Nishimura, K and Hunt, JCR (2000) Saltation and incipient suspension above a flat particle bed below a turbulent boundary layer. J. Fluid. Mech., 417, 77102 (doi: 10.1017/S0022112000001014)
Nishimura, K and Nemoto, M (2005) Blowing snow at Mizuho station, Antarctica. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 363(1832), 16471662 (doi: 10.1098/rsta.2005.1599)
Nishimura, K, Sugiura, K, Nemoto, M and Maeno, N (1998) Measurements and numerical simulations of snow-particle saltation. Ann. Glaciol., 26, 184190
Owen, PR (1964) Saltation of uniform grains in air. J. Fluid Mech., 20(2), 225242
Paterna, E, Crivelli, P and Lehning, M (2016) Decoupling of mass flux and turbulent wind fluctuations in drifting snow. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 44414447 (doi: 10.1002/2016GL068171), 2016GL068171.
Paterna, E, Crivelli, P and Lehning, M (2017) Wind tunnel observations of weak and strong snow saltation dynamics. J. Geophys. Res.: Earth Surf., 122, 15891604
Pomeroy, J (1991) Transport and sublimation of snow in wind-scoured alpine terrain. Snow, Hydrology and Forests in High Alpine Areas (Proceedings of the Vienna Symposium, August 1991). IAHS Publ. no. 205, 1991
Pomeroy, JW and Gray, DM (1990) Saltation of snow. Water. Resour. Res., 26(7), 15831594 (doi: 10.1029/WR026i007p01583)
Prochazka, A and 5 others (2016) Extraction of breathing features using ms kinect for sleep stage detection. Signal. Image. Video. Process., 10(7), 12791286 (doi: 10.1007/s11760-016-0897-2)
RasmussenSMWB, KR SMWB, KR (1985) Measurement of saltation and wind strength on beaches. Mem. 8. University of Aarhus, Denmark, 2, 301325
Schmidt, R (1980) Threshold wind-speeds and elastic impact in snow transport. J. Glaciol., 26, 453467.
Schmidt, R (1981) Estimates of threshold windspeed from particle sizes in blowing snow. Cold. Reg. Sci. Technol., 4(3), 187193 (doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-232X(81)90003-3)
Schmidt, R (1982) Properties of blowing snow. Rev. Geophys., 20(1), 3944.
Schmidt, R, Meister, R and Gubler, H (1984) Comparison of snow drifting measurements at an alpine ridge crest. Cold. Reg. Sci. Technol., 9(2), 131141 (doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-232X(84)90005-3)
Sommer, CG, Lehning, M and Fierz, C (2018) Wind tunnel experiments: influence of erosion and deposition on wind-packing of new snow. Frontiers in Earth Science, 6, 4 (doi: 10.3389/feart.2018.00004)
Sugiura, K, Nishimura, K, Maeno, N and Kimura, T (1998) Measurements of snow mass flux and transport rate at different particle diameters in drifting snow. Cold. Reg. Sci. Technol., 27(2), 8389 (doi: 10.1016/S0165-232X(98)00002-0)
Trujillo, E, Ramrez, JA and Elder, KJ (2007) Topographic, meteorologic, and canopy controls on the scaling characteristics of the spatial distribution of snow depth fields. Water. Resour. Res., 43(7) (doi: 10.1029/2006WR005317), w07409.
Trujillo, E, Leonard, K, Maksym, T and Lehning, M (2016) Changes in snow distribution and surface topography following a snowstorm on Antarctic sea ice. J. Geophys. Res.: Earth Surf., 121(11), 21722191 (doi: 10.1002/2016JF003893), 2016JF003893
Vionnet, V and 7 others (2013) Occurrence of blowing snow events at an alpine site over a 10-year period: Observations and modelling. Advances in Water Resources, 55, 5363 (doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2012.05.004), snow-Atmosphere Interactions and Hydrological Consequences.
Walter, B, Horender, S, Voegeli, C and Lehning, M (2014) Experimental assessment of Owen's second hypothesis on surface shear stress induced by a fluid during sediment saltation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41(17), 62986305 (doi: 10.1002/2014GL061069)
Yavsan, E and Ucar, A (2016) Gesture imitation and recognition using kinect sensor and extreme learning machines. Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation, 94, 852861 (doi: 10.1016/j.measurement.2016.09.026)
Zender, CS, Newman, D and Torres, O (2003) Spatial heterogeneity in aeolian erodibility: Uniform, topographic, geomorphic, and hydrologic hypotheses. J Geophys Res Atmos., 108(D17) (doi: 10.1029/2002JD003039), 4543.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Glaciology
  • ISSN: 0022-1430
  • EISSN: 1727-5652
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-glaciology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed