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Non-surface mass balance of glaciers in Iceland

  • Tómas Jóhannesson (a1), Bolli Pálmason (a1), Árni Hjartarson (a2), Alexander H. Jarosch (a3), Eyjólfur Magnússon (a4), Joaquín M. C. Belart (a4) and Magnús Tumi Gudmundsson (a4)...

Abstract

Non-surface mass balance is non-negligible for glaciers in Iceland. Several Icelandic glaciers are in the neo-volcanic zone where a combination of geothermal activity, volcanic eruptions and geothermal heat flux much higher than the global average lead to basal melting close to 150 mm w.e. a−1 for the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap and 75 mm w.e. a−1 for the largest ice cap, Vatnajökull. Energy dissipation in the flow of water and ice is also rather large for the high-precipitation, temperate glaciers of Iceland resulting in internal and basal melting of 20–150 mm w.e. a−1. The total non-surface melting of glaciers in Iceland in 1995–2019 was 45–375 mm w.e. a−1 on average for the main ice caps, and was largest for Mýrdalsjökull, the south side of Vatnajökull and Eyjafjallajökull. Geothermal melting, volcanic eruptions and the energy dissipation in the flow of water and ice, as well as calving, all contribute, and thus these components should be considered in mass-balance studies. For comparison, the average mass balance of glaciers in Iceland since 1995 is −500 to −1500 mm w.e. a−1. The non-surface mass balance corresponds to a total runoff contribution of 2.1 km3 a−1 of water from Iceland.

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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Tómas Jóhannesson, E-mail: tj@vedur.is

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Keywords

Non-surface mass balance of glaciers in Iceland

  • Tómas Jóhannesson (a1), Bolli Pálmason (a1), Árni Hjartarson (a2), Alexander H. Jarosch (a3), Eyjólfur Magnússon (a4), Joaquín M. C. Belart (a4) and Magnús Tumi Gudmundsson (a4)...

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