Baird, P. D.
1952. The glaciological studies of the Baffin Island Expedition, 1950. Part I: Method of nourishment of the Barnes Ice Cap. J. Glaciol., 2(11), 2–9, 17–19.
Braithwaite, R.J. and Olesen, O. B.. 1990. A simple energy-balance model to calculate ice ablation at the margin of the Greenland ice sheet. J. Glaciol., 36(123), 222–228.
Braithwaite, R. J., Laternser, M. and Pfeffer, W. T.. 1994.Variations of near-surface firn density in the lower accumulation area of the Greenland ice sheet, Pâkitsoq, West Greenland. J. Glaciol., 40(136), 477–485.
Conway, H. and Benedict, R.. 1994. Infiltration of water into snow. Water Res. Res., 30(3), 641–649.
Dowdeswell, J. A.
1995. Glaciers in the High Arctic and recent environmental change. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 352(1699), 321–334.
Fleming, K. M., Dowdeswell, J.A. and Oerlemans, J.. 1997. Modelling the mass balance of northwest Spitsbergen glaciers and responses to climate change. Ann. Glaciol., 24, 203–210.
Gardiner, M. J.
2000. Snowmelt modelling in the Paternoster Valley, Signy Island, Antarctica. (Ph.D. thesis, University of Bristol.)
Greuell, W. and Oerlemans, J.. 1989. The evolution of the englacial temperature distribution in the superimposed ice zone of a polar ice cap during a summer season. In
Oerlemans, J., ed.
Glacier fluctuations and climatic change. Dordrecht, etc., Kluwer Academic Publishers, 289–303.
Hagen, J. O., Lefauconnier, B. and Liestøl, O.. 1991. Glacier mass balance in Svalbard since 1912. International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication
208 (Symposium at St. Petersburg 1990 — Glaciers–Ocean–Atmosphere Interactions), 313–328.
Hanssen-Bauer, I., Solås, M. K. and Steffensen, E. L.. 1990. The climate of Spitsbergen. Oslo, Norsk Meteorologisk Institutt. (Rapport 39/90.)
Houghton, J. T.
and 7 others, eds.
2001. Climate change 2001: the scientific basis. Cambridge, etc., Cambridge University Press. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report.)
Jania, J. and Hagen, J. O.. 1996. Mass balance of Arctic glaciers. Sosnowiec/Oslo, International Arctic Science Committee. Working Group on Arctic Glaciology. (IASC Report 5.)
Jonsson, S. and Hansson, M.. 1990. Identification of annual layers in super-imposed ice from Storøyjøkulen in northeastern Svalbard. Geogr. Ann., 72A(1), 41–54.
Koerner, R. M.
1970. Some observations on superimposition of ice on the Devon Island ice cap, N.W.T. Canada. Geogr. Ann., 52A(1), 57–67.
McGinnis, D. L. and Crane, R. G.. 1994. A multivariate analysis of Arctic climate in GCMs. J. Climate, 7(8), 1240–1250.
1962. Zonation in the accumulation area of the glaciers of Axel Heiberg Island, N.W.T., Canada. J. Glaciol., 4(33), 302–311.
Ødegård, R. S., Hagen, J. O. and Hamran, S.-E.. 1997. Comparison of radioecho sounding (30–1000 MHz) and high-resolution borehole-temperature measurements at Finsterwalderbreen, southern Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Ann. Glaciol., 24, 262–267.
Østrem, G. and Brugman, M.. 1991. Glacier mass-balance measurements. A manual for field and office work. Saskatoon, Sask., Environment Canada. National Hydrology Research Institute. (NHRI Science Report 4.)
Paterson, W. S. B.
1969. The Meighen Ice Cap, Arctic Canada: accumulation, ablation and flow. J. Glaciol., 8(54), 341–352.
Paterson, W. S. B.
1994. The physics of glaciers. Third edition. Oxford, etc., Elsevier.
Pfeffer, W.T. and Humphrey, N. F.. 1996. Determination of timing and location of water movement and ice-layer formation by temperature measurements in sub-freezing snow. J. Glaciol., 42(141), 292–304.
Pfeffer, W. T., Meier, M. F. and Illangasekare, T. H.. 1991. Retention of Green-land runoff by refreezing: future sea level change. J. Geophys. Res., 96(C12), 22,117–22,124.implications for projected
1949. Re-freezing of the melt-water on the surface of glacier ice. Geogr. Ann., 31(1–2), 222–227.
1955. Glaciological investigations in the Thule ramp area. SIPRE Rep.
Shumskii, P. A.
1964. Principles of structural glaciology. New York, Dover Publications.
Trabant, D. C. and Benson, C. S.. 1986. Vliyaniye vnutrennego pitaniya i for-mirovaniya nalozhennogo l’da na balans massy lednika Makkol na Alyaske / Influence of internal accumulation and superimposed ice formation on mass balance of McCall Glacier in Alaska. Mater. Glyatsiol. Issled. 58, 40–49 (Russian); 157–165 (English).
Trabant, D. C. and Mayo, L. R.. 1985. Estimation and effects of internal accumulation on five glaciers in Alaska. Ann. Glaciol., 6, 113–117.
Troitskiy, L. S.
1989. Balans massy lednikov Shpitsbergenav 1985/86, 1986/87 i 1987/88 balansovykh godakh [Mass balance of Spitsbergen glaciers in the 1985/86, 1986/87 and 1987/88 balance years]. Mater. Glyatsiol. Issled.
Troitskiy, L. S.
1991. Balans massy lednikov Shpitsbergena v 1988/89 i 1989/90 balansovykh godakh [The mass balance of glaciers in Spitsbergen in 1988/89 and 1989/90 balance years]. Mater. Glyatsiol. Issled.
Wadham, J. L.
1997. The hydrochemistry of a High Arctic polythermal-based glacier, Finsterwalderbreen, Svalbard. (Ph.D. thesis, University of Bristol.)
Wadham, J. L. and Nuttall, A.-M.. Unpublished. Impact of superimposed ice formation on the mass balance of north-west Spitsbergen glaciers. European Commission Training and Mobility of Researchers Programme. (Final Report.)
Wakahama, G., Kuroiwa, D., Hasemi, T. and Benson, C. S.. 1976. Field observations and experimental and theoretical studies on the superimposed ice of McCall Glacier, Alaska. J. Glaciol., 16(74), 135–149.
Ward, W. H. and Orvig, S.. 1953. The glaciological studies of the Baffin Island Expedition, 1950. Part IV: The heat exchange at the surface of the Barnes Ice Cap during the ablation period. J. Glaciol., 2(13), 158–168.
Woo, M.-K. and Heron, R.. 1981. Occurrence of ice layers at the base of High Arctic snowpacks. Arct. Alp. Res., 13(2), 225–230.
1996. The influence of superimposed ice formation on the sensitivity of glacier mass balance to climate change. (M.Sc. thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta.)
Woodward, J., Sharp, M. and Arendt, A.. 1997. The influence of superim-posed-ice formation on the sensitivity of glacier mass balance to climate change. Ann. Glaciol., 24, 186–190.