Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Measurements of CO2 and CH4 concentrations in air in a polar ice core

  • Takakiyo Nakazawa (a1), Toshinobu Machida (a1), Kenji Esumi (a1), Masayuki Tanaka (a1), Yoshiyuki Fujii (a2), Shuhji Aoki (a2) and Okitsugu Watanabe (a2)...

Abstract

Dry and wet air-extraction systems and precise analysis systems of the CO2 and CH4 concentrations for a polar ice core were developed to reconstruct their ancient levels. A dry-extraction system was capable of crushing an ice sample of 1000 g into fine powder within 2 min, and its air-extraction efficiency was found to be 98%. The CO2 and CH4 concentrations of extracted air were determined using gas chromatography with a flame-ionized detector. The overall precision of our measurements, including air extraction, was estimated to be better than ± 1 ppmv for CO2 and + 10 ppbv for CH4. Preliminary analysis of the ice core drilled at Mizuho Station, Antarctica, showed that the CO2 and CH4 concentrations at 3340–3700 year BP were about 280 ppmv and 700ppbv, respectively. The Yamato core drilled at the terminus of the glacial flow near the Yamato Mountains, Antarctica, yielded concentrations of 230–240 ppmv for CO2 and 520–550 ppbv for CH4, suggesting that the core had formed during the glacial period.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Measurements of CO2 and CH4 concentrations in air in a polar ice core
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Measurements of CO2 and CH4 concentrations in air in a polar ice core
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Measurements of CO2 and CH4 concentrations in air in a polar ice core
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Aoki, S., Nakazawa, T., Murayama, S. and Kawaguchi, S. 1992. Measurements of atmospheric methane at the Japanese Antarcti station, Syowa. Tellus, 44B (4), 273281.
Barnola, J.M., Raynaud, D., Korotkevich, Ye.S. and Lorius, C. 1987. Vostok ice core provides 160,000-year record of atmospheric CO2 . Nature, 329 (6138), 408414.
Blake, D.R. and Rowland, F.S. 1988. Continuing worldwide increase in tropospheric methane, 1978 to 1987. Science, 239, 11291131.
Chappellaz, J., Barnola, J.M., Raynaud, D., Korotkevich, Ye.S. and Lorius, C. 1990 . Ice-core record of atmospheric methan over the past 160,000 years. Nature, 345 (6271), 127131.
Craig, H. and Chou, C.C. 1982. Methane: the record in polar ice cores. Geophys. Res. Lett., 9 (11),12211224.
Etheridge, D.M., Pearman, G.I. and Silva, F. de 1988. Atmospheric trace-gas variations as revealed by air trapped in an ice core from Law Dome, Antarctica. Ann. Glacial., 10, 2833.
Fraser, P.F. and Coram, S. 1991. Atmospheric methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide by gas chromatography, 1989.In Wilson, S.R. and Gras, J.L. eds. Baseline Atmospheric Program (Australia) 1989. Melbourne, Department of the Arts, Sport, the Environment, Tourism and Territories. Bureau of Meteorology in cooperatio with CSIRO. Division of Atmospheric Research, 6466.
Kameda, T., Nakawo, M., Mae, S., Watanabe, O. and Naruse, R. 1990. Thinning of the ice sheet estimated from total gas content of ice cores in Mizuho Plateau, East Antarctica. Ann. Glacial., 14, 131135.
Keeling, C.D. and 7 others. 1989. A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds: 1. Analysis of observational data. Geophys. Monogr., Am. Geophys. Union 55, 165236.
Khalil, M.A.K. and Rasmussen, R.A. 1988. Nitrous oxide: trends and global mass balance over the last 3000 years. Ann. Glacial., 10, 7379.
Moor, E. and Stauffer, B. 1984. A new dry extraction system for gases in ice. J. Glaciol., 30 (106), 358361.
Nakawo, M., Ohmae, H., Nishio, F. and Kameda, T. 1989. Dating the Mizuho 700-m core from core ice fabric data. Proceedings of the NIPR Symposium on Polar Meteorology and Glaciology 2, 105110.
Nakazawa, T. and 9 others. 1991. The concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide at the Japanese Antarctic station, Syowa. Tellus, 43B (2), 126135.
Neftel, Α., Moor, Ε., Oeschger, H. and Stauffer, B. 1985. Evidence from polar ice cores for the increase in atmospheric CO2 in the past two centuries. Nature, 315 (6014), 4547.
Neftel, Α., Oeschger, Η., Staffelbach, T. and Stauffer, Β. 1988. CO2 record in the Byrd ice core 50,000–5,000 years BP. Nature, 331 (6157), 609611.
Pearman, G.I., Etheridge, D., de Silva, F. and Fraser, P.J. 1986. Evidence of changing concentrations of atmospheric CO2, N2O and CH4 from air bubbles in Antarctic ice. Nature, 320 (6059),248250.
Rasmussen, R.A. and Khalil, A.K.M. 1984. Atmospheric methane in the recent and ancient atmospheres: concentrations, trends, and interhemispheric gradient. J Geophys. Res., 89(D7), 11,59911,605.
Raynaud, D. and Barnola, J.M. 1985. An Antarctic ice core reveals atmospheric CO2 variations over the past few centuries. Nature, 315 (6017), 309311.
Raynaud, D., Delmas, R., Ascencio, J.M. and Legrand, M. 1982. Gas extraction from polar ice cores: a critical issue for studying the evolution of atmospheric CO2 and ice-sheet surface elevation. Ann. Glacial., 3 265268.
Raynaud, D., Chappellaz, J., Barnola, J.M., Korotkevitch, Ye.S. and Lorius, C. 1988. Climatic and CH4 cycle implications of glacial-interglacial CH4 change in the Vostok ice core. Nature, 333 (6174), 655657.
Siegenthaler, U. and Oeschger, H. 1987. Biospheric CO2 emissions during the past 200 years reconstructed by deconvolution of ice core data. Tellus, 39B(1-2), 140154.
Siegenthaler, U. and 6 others. 1988. Stable-isotope ratios and concentration of CO2 in air from polar ice cores. Ann. Glaciol., 10, 151156.
Stauffer, B., Fischer, G., Neftel, A. and Oeschger, H. 1985. Increase of atmospheric methane recorded in Antarctic ice core. Science, 229 (4720), 13861388.
Stauffer, B., Lochbronner, E., Oeschger, H. and Schwander, J. 1988. Methane concentration in the glacial atmosphere was only half that of the pre-industrial Holocene. Nature, 332 (6167), 812814.
Wahlen, M., Allen, D., Deck, Β. and Herchenrodcr, A. 1991. Initial measurements of CO2 concentrations (1530 to 1940 AD) in air occluded in the GISP 2 ice core from central Greenland. Geophys. Res. Utt., 18(8), 14571460.
Zumbrunn, R., Neftel, A. and Oeschger, H. 1982. CO2 measurements on 1-cm3 ice samples with an IR laserspectrometer (IRLS) combined with a new dry extraction device. Earth Planet. Sei. Lett., 60, 318324.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed