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Ivory Glacier, New Zealand, an I.H.D. Representative Basin Study

  • P.W. Anderton and T.J. Chinn (a1)

Abstract

Mass, water, and energy balances were measured lit the Ivory Glacier, South Island, New Zealand from 1969 to 1975 as part of an I.H.D. programme of representative basin studies. Ivory Glacier is a small cirque glacier within the high-precipitation maritime environment of Westland and was chosen initially for convenience of study rather than representativeness. Mass-balance investigations included a detailed study of the sampling efficiency of a pole network. Annual mass balance was consistently negative during the study period. The run-off pattern was dominated by rain. The estimated annual mean precipitation is 9630 mm for 1971-75. Snow represents about 25% of annual precipitation. Melt contributed 21% of run-off including 9% contributed by melt of perennial snow and ice. The relative contributions of different fluxes to the energy balance during summer are: net radiation 52%, sensible heat 29%, and latent heat 17%. Heat content of precipitation contributes significantly to the energy balance during individual rain-storms and is probably significant during periods of high precipitation in spring and autumn. Climatic characteristics and behaviour of Ivory Glacier appear to follow regional trends in the Southern Alps and the glacier is considered to be reasonably representative.

Résumé

D.H.I. On a entrepris des études de bilan de masse, de bilan hydrologique et énergétique sur le Ivory Glacier, South Island, Nouvelle-Zélande, de 1969 à 1975 dans le cadre d'un programme de la D.H.I. d'études de bassins représentatifs. Ivory Glacier est un petit glacier de cirque dans l'environnement maritime très pluvieux du Westland et a été choisi au début plus pour la commodité des études que pour sa représentativité. Les études de bilan comprenaient une étude détaillée de l'efficacité de la distribution d'un réseau de balises. Le bilan annuel fut régulièrement négatif pendant la période d'étude. L'allure des écoulements hydrologiques saisonniers fut dominée par la pluie. La précipitation moyenne annuelle estimée est de 9630 mm pour 1971-75. L'accumulation de neige représente environ 25% de la précipitation annuelle. La fusion contribue pour 21 % aux écoulements dont 9% fourni par la fusion de la glace ou de neige permanente. Les contributions relatives des différentes sources au bilan énergétique pendant l'été sont: la radiation nette 52%, la chaleur sensible 29% et la chaleur latente 17%. Le contenu calorifique des précipitations apporte une contribution significative au bilan énergétique pendant les épisodes pluvieux individuels et est probablement également significatif pendant les périodes de pluies abondantes du printemps et de l'automne. Les caractéristiques climatiques et le comportement du Ivory Glacier apparaît en bon accord avec les tendances régionales dans les Southern Alps et l'on peut maintenant considérer le glacier comme raisonnablement représentatif

Zusammenfassung

Am Ivory Glacier auf der Südinsel von Neuseeland wurden von 1969 bis 1975 Massen-, Wasser- und Energiebilanz als Teil eines I.H.D. Programmes von Studien an repräsentativen Gletscherbecken gemessen. Ivory Glacier ist ein kleiner Kargletcher in der niederschlagsreichen, maritimen Region von Westland; die Wahl fiel auf ihn anfänglich eher aus Grunden der Bequemlichkeit als aus solchen der Repràsentanz. Die Unter-suchungen zur Massenbilanz schlossen eine genaue Studie über die Beobachtungszuverlässigkeit in einem Stangennetz ein. Die Jahresmassenbilanz war während der Untersuchungsperiode ständig negativ. Der Abfluss hing vor allem vom Regen ab. Der Niederschlag betrug im Jahresmittel von 1971-75 schätzungs-weise 9630 mm. Hiervon entfielen etwa 25% auf Schnee. 21 % des Abflusses entstammten der Schmelze, worin 9% aus dem Abschmelzen von Altschnee und Eis enthalten sind. Die relativen Beitrage der verschie-denen Quellen zur Energiebilanz wàhrend des Sommers sind: Netto-Strahlung 52%, fühlbare Wärme 29%, latente Wärme 17%. Der Wärmegehalt des Niederschlages trägt wesentlich zur Energiebilanz während einzelner Unwetter bei und spielt vermutlich während der niederschlagsreichen Perioden im Fruhling und Herbst eine entscheidende Rolle. Die klimaabhüngigen Eigenschaften und das Verhalten des Ivory Glacier scheint dem regionalen Trend in den Sudlichen Alpen zu folgen; der Gletscher ist daher derzeit als aus-reïchend repräsentativ.

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Copyright

References

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Ivory Glacier, New Zealand, an I.H.D. Representative Basin Study

  • P.W. Anderton and T.J. Chinn (a1)

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