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Interference Phenomena in Deformed Single Crystals of Ice

  • G. J. Readings (a1) and J. T. Bartlett (a1)

Abstract

When rectangular single crystals of ice were subjected to uniaxial compression parallel to their Long axes and viewed between crossed polarizers, interference fringes were often observed. Some of these interference bands were associated with grain boundaries formed as a result of “kinking”. These can be explained in terms of the known anisotropic optical properties of ice and the change in the orientation of the optic axis across the boundary. This case has been analysed in detail with the aid of Jones’ calculus and good quantitative agreement exists between the theory and the experimental observations.

Other interference bands were observed parallel to the trace of the basal plane on the surface of some deformed crystals. Alternative hypotheses for the explanation of this phenomenon have been considered and it seems probable that these bands are a result of slight random misorientations between adjacent slip lamellae. Applying Jones’ calculus to a simple model of such a deformed crystal indicates that the required misorientations are of the order of 1º If this explanation is correct, it implies that dislocations with non-basal Burgers vectors (probably c[0001]) make an active contribution to the deformation.

Résumé

Lorsque des monocristaux rectangulaires de glace soumis à une compression uniaxiale parallèle à leurs grands axes sont observés entre des polariseurs croises, des franges d’interférence sont souvent observées. Certaines de ces bandes d’interférence sont associées à des limites de grain qui se forment comme s’il y avait “nouage”. On peut l’expliquer par les propriétés connues d’anisotropie optique de la glace et le changement dans l’orientation de l’axe optique à travers la limite. Ce cas a été analysé en détail avec l’aide du calcul de Jones et une bonne concordance quantitative existe entre la théorie et les observations expérimentales.

On observe d’autres bandes d’interférence parallèles à la trace des plans de base à la surface de quelques cristaux déformés. Une hypothèse ou une autre ont été. considérées pour l’explication de ce phénomène et il semble probable que ces bandes sont le résultat de petites variations aléatoires d’orientation entre des plans de glissements voisins. L’application du calcul de Jones à un modèle simple d’un tel cristal déformé montre que les variations d’orientations nécessaires sont de l’ordre du degré. Si cette explication est correcte, elle implique que les dislocations avec des vecteurs de Burgers non basaux (probablement c[0001]) prennent une part active à la déformation.

Zusammenfassung

Wenn rechtwinklige, einkristalline Eisprismen parallel zu ihrer Längsachse komprimiert wurden, konnten oft Interferenzerscheinungen in polarisiertem Licht beobachtet werden. Einige dieser Interferenzbänder waren infolge der Stauchung mit der Bildung von Korngrenzen verbunden; sie können mit der bekannten optischen Anisotropie des Eises und dem Wechsel der optischen Achse an der Komgrcnze erklärt werden. Dieser Fall wurde mit Hilfe der Mairizenrcchnung nach Jones untersucht. Theorie und Experiment stimmen quantitativ gut überein.

Andere Interferenzbänder wurden parallel zur Schnittlinie der Basalebene mit der Oberfläche deformierter Eiskristalle beobachtet. Zwei verschiedene Hypothesen zur Erklärung dieses Phänomens wurden untersucht. Wahrscheinlich wurden die Interferenzbänder durch geringfügige zufällige Orientierungsunterschiede benachbarter Schichten in der Gleitzone verursacht. Die Matrizenrechnung nach Jones zeigt für ein einfaches Modell eines deformierten Kristailes. dass die erforderlichen Orientierungsunterschiede von Schicht zu Schicht etwa i betragen müssen. Wenn diese Erklärung richtig ist, folgt daraus, dass Versetzungen mit Burgers-Vektoren ausserhalb der Basalebenen (wahrscheinlich c[0001) aktiv an der Deformation beteiligt sind.

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Copyright

References

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Interference Phenomena in Deformed Single Crystals of Ice

  • G. J. Readings (a1) and J. T. Bartlett (a1)

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