Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Dynamics of tidewater glaciers: comparison of three models

  • F.M. Nick (a1) and J. Oerlemans (a1)

Abstract

A minimal model of a tidewater glacier based solely on mass conservation is compared with two one-dimensional numerical flowline models, one with the calving rate proportional to water depth, and the other with the flotation criterion as a boundary condition at the glacier terminus. The models were run with two simplified bed geometries and two mass-balance formulations. The models simulate the full cycle of length variations and the equilibrium states for a tidewater glacier. This study shows that the branching of the equilibrium states depends significantly on the bed geometry. The similarity between the results of the three models indicates that if there is a submarine undulation at the terminus of a tidewater glacier, any model in which the frontal ice loss is related to the water depth yields qualitatively the same non-linear behaviour. For large glaciers extending into deep water, the flotation model causes unrealistic behaviour.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Dynamics of tidewater glaciers: comparison of three models
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Dynamics of tidewater glaciers: comparison of three models
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Dynamics of tidewater glaciers: comparison of three models
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Alley, R.B. 1991. Sedimentary processes may cause fluctuations of tidewater glaciers. Ann. Glaciol., 15, 119124.
Björnsson, H., Pálsson, F. and Gudmundsson, S.. 2000. Jökulsárlón at Breidamerkursandur, Vatnajökull, Iceland: 20th century changes and future outlook. Jökull, 50, 118.
Boulton, G.S. 1970. On the deposition of subglacial and melt-out tills at the margins of certain Svalbard glaciers. J. Glaciol., 9(56), 231245.
Brown, C.S., Meier, M.F. and Post, A.. 1982. Calving speed of Alaska tidewater glaciers, with application to Columbia Glacier. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 1258-C.
Budd, W.F., Keage, P.L. and Blundy, N.A.. 1979. Empirical studies of ice sliding. J. Glaciol., 23(89), 157170.
Fischer, M.P. and Powell, R.D.. 1998. A simple model for the influence of push-morainal banks on the calving and stability of glacial tidewater termini. J. Glaciol., 44(146), 3141.
Fountain, A.G. 1983. Columbia Glacier photogrammetric altitude and velocity: data set (1975–1981). U.S. Geol. Surv. Open-File Rep. 82-756.
Funk, M. and Röthlisberger, H.. 1989. Forecasting the effects of a planned reservoir which will partially flood the tongue of Unteraargletscher in Switzerland. Ann. Glaciol., 13, 7681.
Glen, J.W. 1955. The creep of polycrystalline ice. Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 228(1175), 519538.
Krimmel, R.M. 1987. Columbia Glacier, Alaska: photogrammetry data set 1981–82 and 1984–85. US Geol. Surv. Open-File Rep. 87–219.
Meier, M.F. 1994. Columbia Glacier during rapid retreat: interactions between glacier flow and iceberg calving dynamics. In Reeh, N., ed. Report of a Workshop on ‘The Calving Rate of the West Greenland Glaciers in Response to Climate Change’, Copenhagen, 1315 September 1993. Copenhagen, Danish Polar Center, 6383.
Meier, M.F. 1997. The iceberg discharge process: observations and inferences drawn from the study of Columbia Glacier. Byrd Polar Res. Cent. Rep. 15, 109114.
Meier, M.F. and Post, A.. 1987. Fast tidewater glaciers. J. Geophys. Res., 92(B9), 90519058.
Oerlemans, J. 2001. Glaciers and climate change. Lisse, A.A. Balkema.
Oerlemans, J. and Nick, F.M.. 2005. A minimal model of a tidewater glacier. Ann. Glaciol, 42, 16.
Paterson, W.S.B. 1994. The physics of glaciers. Third edition. Oxford, etc., Elsevier.
Pelto, M.S. and Warren, C.R.. 1991. Relationship between tidewater glacier calving velocity and water depth at the calving front. Ann. Glaciol., 15, 115118.
Powell, R.D. 1981. A model for sedimentation by tidewater glaciers. Ann. Glaciol., 2, 129134.
Powell, R.D. 1991. Grounding-line systems as second-order controls on fluctuations of tidewater termini of temperate glaciers. In Anderson, J.B. and Ashley, G.M. eds. Glacial marine sedimentation; paleoclimatic significance. Boulder, CO, Geological Society of America, 7593. (GSA Special Paper 261.)
Smith, G.D. 1978. Numerical solution of partial differential equations: finite difference methods. Oxford, etc., Clarendon Press.
Van der Veen, C.J. 1996. Tidewater calving. J. Glaciol., 42(141), 375385.
Van der Veen, C.J. 1997. Calving glaciers: report of a workshop, February 28–March 2, 1997. Byrd Polar Res. Cent. Rep. 15.
Van der Veen, C.J. 1999. Fundamentals of glacier dynamics. Rotterdam, etc., A.A. Balkema.
Van der Veen, C.J. 2002. Calving glaciers. Prog. Phys. Geog., 26(1), 96122.
Van der Veen, C.J. and Whillans, I.M.. 1993. Location of mechanical controls on Columbia Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A., prior to its rapid retreat. Arct. Alp. Res., 25(2), 99105.
Vieli, A., Funk, M. and Blatter, H.. 2001. Flow dynamics of tidewater glaciers: a numerical modelling approach. J. Glaciol., 47(159), 595606.
Weertman, J. 1961. Stability of ice-age ice sheets. J. Geophys. Res., 66(11), 37833792.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed