Appendix A Chronological Annotated Bibliography of Published Measurements
Errera, M. J.
1924. La dispersion des ondes hertziennes dans les solides au voisinage du point de fusion. Journal de Physique et le Radium, Sér. 6, Tom. 5, No. to, p. 304–11. [Frequencies up to 300 kc./sec. and temperatures down to –47°C.]
1924. Absorption des ondes électromagnétiques par la glace. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences
(Paris), Tom. 179, No. 23, p. 1313–16. [Early measurements. Frequencies up to 7 Mc./sec. and temperatures down to –30°C.]
Lenaizon, B. de
1925. Sur le pouvoir inducteur spécifique de la glace. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences
(Paris), Tom. 180, No. 3, p. 198–99. [83 Mc./sec., –4°C.]
Murphy, E. J.
Lowry, H. H.
1930. The complex nature of dielectric absorption and dielectric loss. Journal of Physical Chemistry, Vol. 34, No. 3, p. 598–620. [In crystalline dielectrics the ions which take part in conduction are concentrated in lattice imperfections.]
Smyth, C. P.
Hitchcock, C. S.
1932. Dipole rotation in crystalline solids. Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 54, No. 12, p. 4631–47. [Measurements on ice made from conductivity water up to 60 kc./sec. and down to –70°C.]
1932. Über Dielektrizitätskonstante, Widerstand, und Phasenwinkel des Eises. Helvetica Physica Acta, Vol. 5, Fasc. 2, p. 126–44. [Table of earlier measurements. New measurements up to 8 kc./sec., down to –50°C.]
Murphy, E. J.
1934. The temperature dependence of the relaxation time of polarizations in ice. Transactions of the Electrochemical Society, Vol. 65, p. 133–42. [Measurements down to –190°C. and from a relaxation time of 20 sec. to 100 kc./sec.]
Murphy, E. J.
Morgan, S. O.
1939. The dielectric properties of insulating materials. Pt. III. Bell. System Technical Journal, Vol. 18, No. 3, p. 502–37. [Results further to Murphy (1934) leading to double term expression for conductivity versus temperature.]
Dorsey, N. E.
1940. Properties of ordinary water-substance in all its phases: water-vapor, water and all the ices. New York, Reinhold Publishing Corporation. (American Chemical Society. Monograph Series, No. 81.) [Collected data for all properties of water.]
1946. Measurements of the dielectric properties of ice. Transactions of the Faraday. Society. Vol. 42A, p. 238–44. [Measurements at 10,000 Mc./sec. from 0° to –48°C. and at –5°C. from 8 kc./sec. to 1 25 Mc./sec.]
Eder, F. X.
1947. Das elektrische Verhalten von Eis. Annalen der Physik, 6. Folge, Bd. 1, Ht. 7–8, p. 381-98. [Measurements down to –50°C., up to 3,000 Mc./sec., but no results plotted for frequencies greater than 10 Mc./sec.]
Averbukh, R. Ye.
Kosman, M. S.
1949. O polyarizatsii l’da
. Zhurnal Ekrperimental’noy i Teoreticheskoy Fiziki
, Tom 19, Vyp. 11, p. 971–72. [Static dielectric constant measurements at high field strengths.]
Saxton, J. A.
1949. High-frequency absorption phenomena in liquids and solids. Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Vol. 96, Pt. 3, No. 40, p. 77–80. [General discussion. Contains no original measurements on ice.]
1949. The dielectric properties of ice at 1.25 cm. wavelength. Proceedings of the Physical Society, Sect. B, Vol. 62, Pt. 4, p. 272–73. [Letter. Dielectric constant and loss tangent measured down to –195°C.]
Murphy, E. J.
1950. Alternating current conduction in ice. Physical Review, Ser. 2, Vol. 79, No. 2, p. 396–97.[Letter. Derivation of the energy of the hydrogen bond in ice, from the limiting conductivity.]
Saxton, J. A.
1950. Reflection coefficient of snow and ice at V.H.F. Wireless Engineer, Vol. 27, No. 316, p. 17–25.[Computed effects based mainly on Lamb’s measurements.]
Dichtel, W. J.
Lundquist, G. A.
1951. An investigation into the physical and electrical characteristics of sea ice. Bulletin of the National Research Council of the U.S., No. 122, p. 122. [Abstract only. Samples from Point Barrow. Salinities between 3.5 and 7 parts per thousand. Cook (1960) quotes numerical results not given in the abstract.]
1951. Sekisetsu no ytiden-teki seishitsu
, Ser. A, No. 8, p. 1–58. [Departures from a relaxation spectrum at low frequencies are attributed to impurities. The relaxation time of snow is found to be less than that of ice. English summary, text in Japanese, many diagrams.]
Murphy, E. J.
1951. The concentration of molecules on internal surfaces in ice., Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 19, No. 12, p. 1516–18. [Deductions from temperature dependence of conductivity.]
Schellman, J. A.
1951. Dielectric properties of ice. Princeton University. Doctoral dissertation Series, Publication 5168. [Calculations of the microscopic electric field for an aggregate of atoms in tetrahedral arrangements.]
Schellman, J. A.
1951. The dielectric polarization of ice. Physical Review, Ser. 2, Vol. 82, No. 2, p. 315. [Abstract only. Discussion of the relative configuration of neighbouring molecules, the electrostatic energy, and the resulting permittivity.]
Auty, R. P.
Cole, R. H.
1952. Dielectric properties of ice and solid D2O. Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 20, No. 8, p. 1309–14. [Carefully controlled measurements on pure ice up to 100 kc./sec. and down to –66°C.]
Cumming, W. A.
1952. The dielectric properties of ice and snow at 3.2 centimeters. Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 23, No. 7, p. 768–73. [Variations with density down to 0.2 g./cm.3, temperature down to –20°C., and free water content up to 1.5 per cent.]
Haggis, G. H., and others. 1952. The dielectric properties of water in solutions, [by] G. H. Haggis, J. B. Hasted and T. J. Buchanan. Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 20, No. 9, p. 1452–65. The static dielectric constant of ice at 0°C. is calculated.]
Hasted, J. B.
1953. Étude des molécules d’eau par les radiofréquences. Journal de Chimie Physique, Torn. 50, No. 7–8, p. 35–39. [The variation of relaxation frequency with temperature is related to the number of bands.]
Horigan, F. D.
1953. Electrical characteristics of snow and ice—a literature search. U.S. Technical Library of the Quartermaster Research and Development Laboratories, Bibliographic Series, No. 28. [Bibliography for 1948–53. Some omissions.]
Humbel, F., and others. 1953. Anisotropie der Dielektrizitätskonstante des Eises, von F. Humbel, F. Jona und P. Scherrer. Helvetica Physica Acta, Vol. 26, Fase. 1, p. 17–32. [Single crystals measured parallel and perpendicular to the optic axis at 1 kc./sec. down to –°40C.]
Truby, F. K.
1953. Some electrical hysteresis properties of ice. Physical Review, Ser. 2, Vol. 92, No. 2, p. 543–44 [Abstract only. Rectifying properties at high field strengths.]
Workman, E. J.
1954. Theory of volume rectification in ice. Physical Review, Ser. 2, Vol. 94, No. 3, p. 770. [Abstract only. Front to back conductivity ratio 105 in halide contaminated ice at low frequencies.]
Gränicher, H., and others. 1954. Erhöhung der Dielektrizitätskonstante des Eises durch Halogeneinlagerung, von H. Gränicher, P. Scherrer und A. Steinemann. Helvetica Physica Acta, Vol. 27, Fasc. 3, p. 217–19. [Experimental results.]
Von Hippel, A., ed. 1954. Dielectric materials and applications. Cambridge, Mass., Technology Press of Massachusetts Institute of Technology; New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; London, Chapman and Hall, Ltd. [Contains measurements from 1 kc./sec. to 3 cm. wavelength on pure ice and two snow samples.]
Workman, E. J.
1954. The electrical conduction and dielectric properties of ice. Physical Review, Ser. 2, Vol. 94, No. 3, p. 770. [Abstract only. Highly co-ordinated electrical domains can give rise to very high static dielectric constant.]
The dielectric property of snow. Union Géodésique et Géophysique Internationale. Association Internationale d’Hydrologie Scientifique. Assemblée générale de Rome
1954, Tom. 4, p. 52–63. [Pure ice and natural snow from 1 kc./sec. to 100 kc./sec. down to densities 0 1 g./cm.3 and temperature –9°C.]
Riehl, N. 1956. Elektrische Leitfähigkeit von organischen Isolatoren, Eis und Proteinen im Zusammenhang mit der Energiewanderung. Nalurwissenschaften, Jahrg. 43, Ht. 7, p. 145–52.
1956. Proton jumps and the electrical behavior of ice and ice-NH4F solutions. Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 25, No. 2, p. 350–56. [Includes discussion of relaxation times.]
1956. Solid solutions of ice and NH4F and their dielectric properties. Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 24, No. 4, p. 895–902. [Experiments on the phase diagram and on the relaxation time.]
Bradley, R. S.
1957. The electrical conductivity of ice. Transactions of the Faraday Society, Vol. 53, Pt. 5, p. 687–91. [Direct current.]
1957. Structure of ice. U.S. Snow, Ice and Permafrost Research Establishment. Report 33. [Possibility of solid solution up to ro per cent. Effect on relaxation spectrum.]
1957. Influence of pressure on the dielectric properties of ice. Nature, Vol. 179, No. 4560, p. 623–24. [Letter. Measurements at 1 kc./sec. show small effect at pressure of 2 bar.]
Brill, R., and others. 1957. Dielektrisches Verhalten von Eis-Ammoniumfluorid-Mischkristallen von R. Brill, H. Ender und A. Feuersanger. Zeitschrift für Elektrochemie, Berichte der Butsengesellschafi für physikalische Chemie, Bd. 61, Nr. 8, p. 1071–75. [Mixed crystals exhibit a spectrum of relaxation times. The energy for dipole orientation is less than in pure ice.]
Gränicher, H., and others. 1957. Dielectric relaxation and the electrical conductivity of ice crystals, by H. Gränicher, C. Jaccard, P. Scherrer and A. Steinemann. Discussion of the Faraday Society, No. 23, p. 50–62. [Authoritative review: the ionic character of the d.c. conductivity is demonstrated. The dynamic behaviour is interpreted in terms of lattice imperfections.]
1957. Conduction of electricity through ice and snow. [Parts] 1-II. Arkiv for Fysik, Bd. 11, Ht. 6, p. 495–528. [d.c. conductivity measurements for various field strengths, temperatures, orientations, and electrode surfaces.]
1957. Dielektrische Eigenschaften von Eiskristallen. 1. Teil. –II. Teil. Helvetica Physica Acta, Vol. 30, Fase. 7, p. 553–80 and (Steinemann) p. 581–610. [Deviation from Debye spectrum at extremely low frequencies. Necessity for orientational defects.]
1958. Zur Bestimmung des Schmelzwassergehaltes des Schnees durch dielektrische Messungen. Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie, Bd. 4, Ht. 1–2, p. 1–8. [Relation between the capacity of a standard capacitor containing snow and the water content of the snow.]
Millecamps, R. G.
1958. Sur les propriétés électromagnétiques de la glace des glaciers. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences
(Paris), Tom. 247, No. 12, p. 884–86. [Field measurements from 50 to 400 kc./sec.]
1958. The infrared and Raman spectra of ice. Advances in Physics, Vol. 7, No. 26, p. 199–220. [Authoritative review of all work published up to September 1957. Few measurements at frequencies less than 200 cm.–1. Many references.]
1958. Dielectric properties of ice, snow, and supercooled water. Monograph Series of the Research Institute of Applied Electricity, Hokkaido University, No. 6, p. 31–37. [Application to problems of radio propagation and radar meteorology.]
Stanley, G. M.
1958. Studies of ground conductivity in the Territory of Alaska. University of Alaska. Geophysical Report Series, UAG-R81. [Average values derived from radio propagation observations.]
Gross, E. F.
1959. The vibration spectrum of the hydrogen bond. (In
Hadzi, D., ed.
Hydrogen bonding; papers presented at the symposium on hydrogen bonding held at Ljubljana, 29 July-3 August 1957. London, Pergamon Press, p. 203–09.) [Temperature dependence of low-frequency lines (~200 cm.−1) in the Raman spectrum of ice and solid D20. Reference to related work.]
1959. Etude théorique et expérimentale des propriétés é]eetriques de la glace. Helvetica Physica. icta, Vol. 32, Fasc. 2, p. 89–128. [Experimental work to discover which defects are important to d.c. conductivity, dielectric constant, and relaxation time. Experimental details.)
Kislovskiy, L. D.
1959. Opticheskiye kharakteristiki vody i l’da v infrakrasnoy i radiovolnovoy oblasti spektra. Optika i Spektroskopiya, Tom 7, Vyp. 3, p. 311–20 [Translation: Optical characteristics of water and ice in the infrared and radiowave regions of the spectrum. Optics and Spectroscopy, Vol. 7, No. 3, p. 201–06.] [Review. Infrared data only for ice.]
Waite, A. H.
1959. Ice depth sounding with UHF radio in the Arctic and Antarctic. U.S. Army. Signals Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, Technical Report No. 2092. [Contains measurements of permittivity at 30 Mc.fsec. in holes 25 ft. (7.5 m.) deep in Antarctic ice shelf.]
Cook, J. C.
1960. RF electrical properties of salty ice and frozen earth. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 65, No. 6, p. 1767–71. [Artificial samples measured at 100 Mc./sec. down to –40°C. for salinities up to 3.5 per cent.]
1960. Electrical resistivity of frozen earth. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 65, No. g, p. 3023–24. [Various electrode spacings in the vicinity of Scott Rase, Antarctica.)
1960. The electrical properties of ice. (In Rendiconti della Scuola Internazionale di Fisica “Enrico Fermi”. Corso so. Varenna, 15–27 Giugnio 1959. Bologna, Nicola Zanichelli, p. 294–315.) [Review, suggesting need for revision of ideas.]
Watt, A. D.
Maxwell, E. L.
1960. Measured electrical properties of snow and glacial ice. Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards
(Washington, D.C.), Sect. D, Vol. 64, No. 4, p. 357–63. [Field measurements using ELTRAN electrode arrays in the field at frequencies up to 200 kc./sec.]
Wescott, E. M.
Hessler, V. P.
1960. The effect of topography and geology on telluric currents. University of Alaska. Geophysical Report Series, UAG-R107. [Includes ground resistivity measurements in Alaska using Wenner electrode system up to spacings of 90 ft. (27 m.).]
Camp, P. R.
1961. Properties of ice. U.S. Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. Research Report 68. [Includes properties of mixed crystals, degree of perfection of glacier ice crystals and review of relaxation spectrum.]
1961. Polar ionospheric spread echoes and radio frequency properties of ice shelves. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 66, No. 12, p. 4137–41. [Analysis of ionograros shows that 1 to 10 Mc./sec. radiation penetrates ice shelves.]
Hasted, J. B.
1961. The dielectric properties of water. Progress in Dielectrics, Vol. 3, p. 101–49. [Contains a discussion of the lattice structure and imperfections in ice.]
1961. Radio wave propagation on the ice cap. Antarctic Record
(Tokyo), No. 11, p. 228–33. [Measurements in tuned circuits and transmission lines from 1.5 to 3,000 Mc./sec. using snow samples in Antarctica.]
1962. Conductivité électrique de la neige, au courant continu. Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik and Physik, Bd. 13, Ht. 5, p. 431–41. [Wide range of samples, temperatures 0° to –5°C.]
1962. Electrical properties of snow. (In
Bader, H. The physics and mechanics of snow as a material. U.S. Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. Cold regions science and engineering. Hanover, N.H., Pt. 11, Sect. B, p. 63–79.) [Collected results and new measurements of the effect of thick ice on U.H.F. antennae.]
1962. The electrical properties of ice. (In
Pesce, B., ed.
Electrolytes: proceedings of an international symposium held in Trieste, June 1959. Oxford, Pergamon Press, p. 27–46.) [Authoritative review of conductivity, relaxation, and temperature coefficients in terms of Bjerrum defects.]
Waite, A. H.
Schmidt, S. J.
1962. Gross errors in height indication from pulsed radar altimeters operating over thick ice or snow. Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers, Vol. 50, No. 6, p. 1515–20. [Greenland and Antarctica with radar altimeter on snow surface.]
Dunitz, J. D.
1963. Nature of orientational defects in ice. Nature, Vol. 197, No. 4870, p. 860–62. [Approximate quantitative explanation of low-frequency conductivity.]
1963. Properties and lattice imperfections of ice crystals and the behaviour of H2O-HF solid solutions. Physik der kondensierten Materie, Bd. 1, Ht. 1, p. 1–12. [Review containing summarized numerical data.]
1963. Conductivity measurements on pure ice. Transactions of the Faraday Society, Vol. 59, Pt. 5, p. 1141–46. [Direct current. Activation energy 24.2 kcal. Conductivity 1.6×10–7 mhofm. at –10°C.]
Addison, J. R.
Pounder, E. R.
1964. Electrical properties of saline ice. Ice Research Project, McGill University. Final report, project 8623, task 862301. [Artificially frozen sea-water of various salinities at –22°C. Dielectric constant and resistivity measured from 20 c./sec. to 100 Mc.fsec.]
Eigen, M., and others. 1964. ‘Über das kinetische Verhalten von Protonen and Deuteronen in Eiskristallen, von M. Eigen, L. de Maeyer and H.-C. Spatz. Berichte der Bunsengesellschaft für physikalische Chemie, Bd. 68, Nr. 1, p. 19–29. [Contains lowest measured value of d.c. conductivity. Also temperature coefficient.]
1964. Dielectric measurements on Antarctic snow at 3,000 Mc./sec. Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 5, No. 37, p. 134. [Letter. Brief announcement of propagation between pits using tellurometer.]
Ragle, R. H., and others. 1964. Ice core studies of Ward Hunt Ice Shelf, 1960, by R. H. Ragle, R. G. Blair and L. E. Persson. Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 5, No. 37, p. 39–59. [Contains table of measurements by Westphal from l00 to 1,000 Mc./sec. on core samples.]