Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

An improved coherent radar depth sounder

  • S. Gogineni (a1), T. Chuah (a2), C. Allen (a1), K. Jezek (a3) and R. K. Moore (a1)...

Abstract

The University of Kansas developed a coherent radar depth sounder during the 1980s. This system was originally developed for glacial ice-thickness measurements in the -Antarctic. During the field tests in the Antarctic and Greenland, we found the system performance to be less than optimum. The field tests in Greenland were performed in 1993, as a part of the NASA Program for Arctic Climate Assessment (PARCA). We redesigned and rebuilt this system to improve the performance.

The radar uses pulse compression and coherent signal processing to obtain high sensitivity and fine along-track resolution. It operates at a center frequency of 150 MHz with a radio frequency bandwidth of about 17 MHz., which gives a range resolution of about 5m in ice. We have been operating it from a NASA P-3 aircraft for collecting ice-thickness data in conjunction with laser surface-elevation measurements over the Greenland ice sheet during the last 4years. We have demonstrated that this radar can measure the thickness of more than 3 km of cold ice and can obtain ice-thickness information over outlet glaciers and ice margins.

In this paper we provide a brief survey of radar sounding of glacial ice, followed by a description of the system and subsystem design and performance. We also show sample results from the held experiments over the Greenland ice sheet and its outlet glaciers.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      An improved coherent radar depth sounder
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      An improved coherent radar depth sounder
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      An improved coherent radar depth sounder
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Ackley, S. F. and Keliher, T. E., 1979. Ice sheet internal radio-echo reflections and associated physical property changes with depth. J. Geophys. Res., 84 (B10), 5680.
Analog Devices Inc. 1987. ADSP-2100 applications handbook. Vol.1. Norwood, MA. Analog Devices Inc.
Analog Devices Inc. 1996. Designer’s reference manual. Norwood, MA, Analog Devices Inc.
Bamber, J. L. 1987. Internal reflecting horizons in Spitsbergen glaciers. Ann. Glaciol., 9, 510.
Bentley, C. R. 1975. Advances in geophysical exploration of ice sheets and glaciers. J. Glaciol., 15(73), 113135.
Berry, M. V. 1975. Theory of radio echoes from glacier beds. J. GLaciol., 15(73), 65 74.
Bjornsson, H.. Ferrari, R. L., Miller, K. J. and Owen, G.. 1977. A I976 radio echo sounding expedition to the Vatnajokull ice cap, Iceland. Polar Rec., 18 (115), 375377.
Chuah, T. S., Gogineni, S. P.. C. Allen and Wohletz, U.. 1996a. Radar thickness measurements over the northern part of the Greenland ice sheet. Lawrence, KS, University of Kansas Center for Research Inc. Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory. (Technical Report 104703.)
Chuah, T. S., Gogineni, S. P..C. Allen and Wohletz, B.. 1996b. Radar thickness measurements over the southern part of the Greenland ice sheet. Lawrence, KS, University of Kansas Center for Research Inc. Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory. (Technical Report 104702.)
Clarke, G. K. C. and Goodman, R. H.. 1975. Radio echo soundings ami ice-temperature measurements in a surge-type glacier. J. Glaciol., 14(70), 7178,
Comnlinear Corporation. 1995. Linear databook. Fort Collins, CO, Comn-linear Corporation.
Dahl-Jensen, D. and Others. 1997. A search In north Greenland for a new ice-core drill site. J. Glaciol., 43,(144),300 306.
Davis, C. H., Dean, R. H. and Xin, W.. 1990. Radar reflections from water injected into an Antarctic glacier. IEEE Trans. Geosci Remote Sensing, GE-28(4),723726.
Doake, C. S. M. 1975. Glacier sliding measured by a radio-echo technique. J. Glaciol., 15(73), 8993.
Doake, C. S. M., Gorman, M. and Paterson, W. S. B.. 1976. A further comparison of glacier velocities measured by radio-echo and survey methods, J. Glaciol., 17(75), 3538.
Dowdeswel, L. J. A., Drewry, D. J., Liestol, O. and Orheim, O., 1984. Radio echo-sounding of Spitsbergen glaciers: problems in the inerpretation of layer and bottom returns. J. Glaciol., 30(104), 1621.
Drewry D.J. 1975. Comparison of electromagnetic and seismic—gravity ice thickness measurements in East Antarctica. J J. Glaciol., 15(73), 137- l50.
Drewry, D. J. and Liestol, O.. 1985). Glaciological investigations of singing ice caps in Nordaustlandet. Polar Rec., 22(139), 359378.
Drewry, D. J. and Meldrum, D. T.. 1978. Antarctic airborne radio echo sounding. 197778. Polar Rec., 19(120), 267273.
Evans, S. 1367. Progress report on radio echo soundings. Polar Rec., 13 (85), 413420.
Evans, S. 1970. Review of radio echo system performances. In Gudmandsen, P.E., ed. Proceedings of the International Meeting mi Radioglaciology, May 1970, Lyngby, Denmark. Lyngby,Technical University of Denmark. Laboratory of Electromagnetic Theory, 100102.
Evans, S. and Smith, B. M. E.. 1969. A radio echo equipment for depth sounding In polar ice sheets, J. Phys. E., Ser. 2, 2, 131136.
Evans, S., Drewry, D. J. and G. de Robin, Q.. 1972. Radio-echo sounding in Antarctica, 1971- 72, Polar Rec., 16(101), 207212.
Fedorov, B. A. 1967. Primeneniye aklivnoy radiolokatsii dlya izucheniya antarkticheskikh lednikov [Radar sounding of Antarctic ice]. Inf. Byull. Sov. Antarkt, Eksped. 62,19- 24.
Fisher, E. and 6 others. 1989. Determination of bedrock topography beneath the Greenland ice sheet by three-dimensional imaging of radar sound-Ing data. J. Geophys. Res., 94(?3), 28742882.
Goodman, R. H. 1970. A data collection system for glacier studies. In Ninth Annual Hydrographic Conference, 27–29 January 1970, Talisman. Motor Inn, Ottawa. Proceedings. Ottawa, Ont, Canadian Hydrographic Service, 6978.
Goodman, R. H. 1975. Radio echo sounding on temperate glaciers. J. Glaciol., 14(70), 5769.
Goodman, R. H., Clarke, G. K. C., Jarvis, G.T., Collins, S.G. and Met, R.-calfe. 1975. Radio soundings on Trapridge Glacier, Yukon Territory, Cnada. J. Glaciaol., 14(70),7984.
Gorman, M. R. and Cooper, A. P. R.. 1987. A digital radio echo-sounding and navigation recording system. Ann. Glaciol., 9, 8184.
Gudmandsen, P. 1969. Airborne radio echo sounding of the Greenland ice sheet. Geogr. J., 135(4),548551.
Gudmandsen, P. E. 1970. Notes on radar sounding of the Greenland ice sheet. In Gudmandsen, P. E., ed. Proceeding of the International Meeting on Radioglacilogy, May 1970, Lyng by, Denmark. Lyng by, Technical University of Denmark. Laboratory of Electromagnetic Theory, 124—135.
Gudmandsen, P 1975. Layer echoes in polar ice sheets. J. Glaciol., 15(73), 95101.
Gudmandsen, P. 1977. Studies of ice by means of radio echo sounding. In Peel, R. F., Curtis, L. F. and Barrett, E. C., eds. Remote sensing of the terrestrial environment. London, etc., Butter worths,198211.
Hamran, S.-E. and Aarholt, E.. 1993. Glacier study using wavenumber domain synthetic aperture radar. Radio Sci., 28(4), 559570.
Hargreaves, N. D. 1977. The polarization of radio signals in the radio echo sounding of ice sheets. J. Pys. D., 10(9), 12851304.
Harrison, C. H. 1971. Radio-echo sounding: focusing effects in wavy strata. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Sac., 24(4), 383400.
Harrison, C. H. 1973. Radio echo sounding of horizontal layers in ice. J. Glaciol., 12(66), 383397.
Hempel, L. and Thyssen, F.. 1993. Deep radio echo soundings in the vicinity of Gogineni and others: Instruments and methods GRIP and GISP2 drill sites, Greenland. Polarforschung, 62(1), 1992,11—16.
Hodge, S. M., Wright, D. L., Bradley, J. A., R.W.Jacobel, Skou, N. and Vaughn, B.. 1990. Determination of the surface and bed topography in central Greenland. J. Glaciol., 36(122), 17- 30.
Jacobel, R. W. and Hodge, S. M.. 1995. Radar internal layers from the Greenland summit. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(5),587590.
Jezek, K. 1985. Radar measurements of borehole geometry on the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Geophysics, 50(2), 242251.
Jezek, K. C., Bentley, C. R. and Clough, J. W.. 1979. Electromagnetic sounding of bottom crevasses on the Ross Ice ShelF, Antarctica. J. Glaciol, 24(90), 321330.
Kotlyakov, V. M. and Macheret, Yu.Ya. 1987. Radio echo-sounding of subpolar glaciers In Svalbard: some problems and results of Soviet studies. Ann. Glaciol., 9, 151159.
Krabill, W. B., R. H.Thomas. Martin, C. F., R. N.Swift and Frederick, E. B.. 1995a. Accuracy of airborne laser altimetry over the Greenland ice sheet. lnt. J.Remote Sensing, 16 (7), 1211-1222.
Krabill, W., Thomas, R., Jezek, K., Kuivinen, K. and Manizade, S.. 19951b. Greenland ice sheet thickness changes measured by laser altimetry, Geo-phys. Res. Lett., 22(17), 23412344.
Lcgarsky, J. J., Gogineni, S. P., C, Allen. Chuah, T. S. and Wong, Y. C.. 1997. Radar thickness measurements over the northern part of the Greenland ice sheet: 1996 results. Lawrence. KS, University of Kansas Center for Research Inc. Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory. (Technical Report 104706)
Macheret, Yu.Ya. and Zhuravlev, A. B.. 1982. Radio echo-sounding of Sval-bard glaciers. J. Glaciol., 28(99), 295314.
Millar, D. H. M. 1981. Radio-echo layering in polar ice sheets and past volcanic activity. Nature, 292 (5822), 441443.
Morgan, V. I. and Budd, W. F.. 1975. Radio-echo sounding of the Lambert Glacier basin. J.Glaciol, 15 (73), 103- 111.
MUSIL, G.J. and Doake, C. S. M.,1987. Imaging subglacial topography by a synthetic aperture radar technique. Ann. Glaciol, 9, 170175.
Narod, B. B. and Clarke, G. K. C.. 1980. Airborne UHF radio echo-sounding of three Yukon glaciers. J. Glaciol., 25 (91), 2331.
Narod, B. B. and Clarke, G. K. C.. 1994. Miniature high-power impulse transmitter for radio-echo sounding. J. Glaciol, 40 (134), 190194.
NeaL C.S. 1976. Radio-echo power profiling. J. Glaciol, 17(77), 527- 530.
Nral, C. S. 1979. The dynamics of the Ross Ice Shelf if revealed by radio echo-sounding. J. Glaciol., 24 (90), 295307.
Nolan, M., Motyka, R. J., Echelmeyer, K. and D.C.Trabant. 1995. Ice-thickness measurements of Taku Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A., and their relevance to its recent behavior. J. Glaciol., 41 (139), 541553.
Oswald, G. K. A. 1975. Investigation of sub-ice bedrock characteristics by radio -eho sounding. J.Glaciol., 15(73), 7587.
Paterson, W. S. B. 1994. The physics of glaciers. Third edition. Oxford, etc., Elsevier.
Raju, G. W. Xin and Moore, R. K.. 1990. Design, development, field observations, and preliminary results of the coherent Antarctic radar depth sounder (CARDS) of the University of Kansas, U.S.A. J. Glaciol., 36(123),247254.
Rignot, E. 1996. Tidal motion, ice velocity and melt rate of Petermann Gletscher, Greenland, measured from radar interfermetry. J. Glaciol, 42 (142), 476485.
Rinker, J. N. Unpublished. Monocycle radio ice measurements, 1966 Greenland field tests. Hanover,NH. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. (Report).
Rinker, J. N. and Mock, S. J.. 1967. Radar ice thickness profiles- northwest Greenland CRREL Spec. Rep. 103.
Robin, G, de Q. 1972. Polar ice sheets: a review, Polar Rec, 16 (100), 522.
Robin, G. de Q. 1975a. Radio-echo sounding: glaciological interpretations and applications., J.Glaciol., 15(73), 49—64.
Robin, G.de Q. 1975b Velocity of radio waves in ice by means of a bore-hole interferometric technique.J. Glaciol., 15(73), 151-159.
Sinsheimer, R. L. 1947. Altitude determination. In Hall, J. S., ed. Radar aids to navigation. New York, etc., McGraw-Hill, 131142. (J Radiation Laboratory Series 2.)
Sivaprasad, K., ed. 1978. Report of radio echo sounding of ice work shop, Durham,New Hampshire, Durham, NH, University of New Hampshire. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.
Strangway, D. W. and 7 others. 1974. Radio-frequency interferometry — a new technique for studying glaciers. J. Glaciol. 13(67). 123-132.
Sverrisson, M., Johannesson, E. and Björnsson, H., 1980. Radio-echo equipment for depth sounding of temperate glaciers. J. Glaciol., 25(93), 477486.
Waite, A. H. and Schmidt, S. J.. 1961. Gross errors ill height indication from pulsed radar altimeters operating over thick ice or snow. Institute of Radio Engineers International Convention Record, 5, 38-53.
Walford, M. E. R., 1964. Radio echo sounding through an ice shelf, Nature, 204(4956).317319.
Walford, M.E, R, and Harper, M. F. L.. 1981. The detailed study of glacier beds using radio-echo techniques, Geophys. J. R. A stron. Soc., 67(3), 487514.
Walford, M. E. R., Holdorfand, P. C. Oakberg, R. G.. 1977. Phase-sensitive radio-echo sounding at the Devon Island ice cap, Canada. J. Glaciol., 18(79), 217229.
Watts, R. D. and England, A. W., 1976. Radio-echo sounding of temperate glaciers: ice properties and sounder design criteria., J. Glaciol., 17(75), 3948.
Wads, R. D. and Wright, D. L. 1981. Systems for measuring thickness of temperate and polar ice from the ground or from the air. J. Glaciol., 27 (97), 459469.
Watts, R. D., England, A. W., Viekers, R. S. and Meier, M.E. 1975. Radio-echo sounding on South Caseade Glacier. Washington, using a long-wavelength, mono-pulse source. (Abstract.) J. Glaciol., 15(73), 459461.
Weber, J. R. and Andrieux, P.. 1970. Radar soundings on the Penny Ice Gap, Baffin Island. J. Glaciol., 9 (55), 4954.
West, J. C. and Demarest, K. R.. 1987. The radiation characteristics of an arbitary antenna positioned on a polar ice sheet Geophysics, 52 (12), 16891696.
Woodruff, A. H. W. and Doake, C.S.M.. 1979. Depolarization of radio waves can distinguish between floating and grounded ice sheets. J. Glaciol., 23(89), 223232.
Wright, D. L., Hodge, S. M. and Bradley, J. A.. 1989. Use of a new high-speed digital data acquisition system for airborne ice-sounding IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, GE-27 (5) 561567.
Xin, W. 1989. Data processing system of the coherent Antarctic radar depth sounder. Lawrence, KS. University of Kansas Center for Research Inc. Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory. (Technical Report 80703.)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed