Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Morphological Change Through Phonological Analogy: 2nd Person Singular -s → -st and Related Developments in Germanic

  • David Fertig (a1)

Abstract

Almost all existing accounts of the change of the 2nd person singular verbal agreement ending -s to -st in Old English and Old High German attribute the development to some combination of reanalysis of forms with enclitic subject pronouns ending in -stu and analogy based on a handful of mainly preterite-present verbs that already had 2nd person singular -st in the present indicative in Proto-(West)-Germanic. These factors retain a role in the analysis presented here, but I argue that the operative mechanisms are essentially phonological in nature, licensed ultimately by certain neutralizing processes such as degemination, rather than involving the spread of an existing -st morpheme, grammaticalization of an enclitic subject pronoun, or relocation of a morphological boundary. This analysis also sheds light on the relationship of the 2nd person singular change to the more general phenomenon of word-final t accretion seen in dozens of words such as German Axt ‘ax’ < Middle High German ackes or English against < earlier agains.*

Copyright

Corresponding author

Department of Linguistics, 609 Baldy Hall, North Campus, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA [fertig@buffalo.edu]

Footnotes

Hide All
*

Special thanks to Jean-Pierre Koenig and to two anonymous referees for JGL for valuable feedback on earlier versions of this paper and to the attendees at my presentation at GLAC 23 (April 2017), which dealt with some aspects of this project.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Ackerman, Farrell, & Malouf, Robert. 2016. Implicative relations in word-based morphological systems. The Cambridge handbook of morphology, ed. by Hippisley, Andrew & Stump, Gregory, 297328. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Albright, Adam, & Hayes, Bruce. 2003. Rules vs. analogy in English past tenses: A computational/experimental study. Cognition 90. 119161.
Altmann, Hans. 1984. Das System der enklitischen Personalpronomina in einer mittelbairischen Mundart. Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik 51. 191211.
Ambridge, Ben, Theakston, Anna L., Lieven, Elena V. M., & Tomasello, Michael. 2006. The distributed learning effect for children’s acquisition of an abstract syntactic construction. Cognitive Development 21. 174193.
Andersen, Henning. 1980. Morphological change: Towards a typology. Historical morphology, ed. by Fisiak, Jacek, 150. The Hague: Mouton.
Anttila, Raimo. 2003. Analogy: The warp and woof of cognition. Handbook of historical linguistics, ed. by Joseph, Brian D. & Janda, Richard D., 425–40. Oxford: Blackwell.
Axel, Katrin, & Weiß, Helmut. 2011. Pro-drop in the history of German. Null pronouns, ed. by Wratil, Melani & Gallmann, Peter, 2152. Berlin: de Gruyter.
Benware, Wilbur. 1979. Zur Dentalepithese im Deutschen. Beiträge zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache und Literatur 101. 329346.
Blevins, James. 2016. Word and paradigm morphology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Blevins, Juliette. 2008. Consonant epenthesis: Natural and unnatural histories. Linguistic universals and language change, ed. by Good, Jeff, 79107. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Booij, Geert. 2002. The morphology of Dutch. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Braune, Wilhelm, & Reiffenstein, Ingo. 2004. Althochdeutsche Grammatik I: Laut- und Formenlehre. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
Brinkmann, Hennig. 1931. Sprachwandel und Sprachbewegungen in althochdeutscher Zeit. Jena: Frommann.
Brunner, Karl. 1951. Die englische Sprache ihre geschichtliche Entwicklung, vol. 2: Die Flexionsformen, ihre Verwendung das Englische außerhalb Europas. Halle: Niemeyer.
Bybee, Joan L., & Moder, Carol Lynn. 1983. Morphological classes as natural categories. Language 59. 251270.
Campbell, Alistair. 1959. Old English grammar. Oxford: Clarendon.
Carstairs-McCarthy, Andrew. 1994. Inflection class, gender, and the Principle of Contrast. Language 70. 737788.
Carstairs-McCarthy, Andrew. 1999. The tension between “combinatorial” and “class-default” regularity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22. 10171018.
Cowgill, Warren. 1959. The inflection of Germanic ō-presents. Language 35. 115.
Einarsson, Stefán. 1945. Icelandic grammar texts glossary. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Fertig, David. 1999. Analogical “leveling” from outside the paradigm: Stem-vowel changes in the German modals. Diachronica 16. 233260.
Fertig, David. 2000. Morphological change up close. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
Fertig, David. 2013. Analogy and morphological change. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Fertig, David. 2015. Analogy (translation of chapter 5 of Paul 1920). Hermann Paul’s “Principles of language history” revisited, ed. by Auer, Peter & Murray, Robert W., 8398. Berlin: de Gruyter.
Fertig, David. 2016. Mechanisms of paradigm leveling and the role of universal preferences in morphophonological change. Diachronica 33. 423460.
Franck, Johannes. 1971. Mittelniederländische Grammatik mit Lesestücken und Glossar. 2nd edn. Arnhem: Gysbers & van Loon.
Fuß, Eric. 2005. The rise of agreement. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Fuß, Eric. 2011. Historical pathways to null subjects: Implications for the theory of pro-drop. Null pronouns, ed. by Wratil, Melani & Gallmann, Peter, 5398. Berlin: de Gruyter.
Fuß, Eric, & Wratil, Melani. 2013. Der Nullsubjektzyklus: Etablierung und Verlust von Nullargumenten. Sprachwandelvergleich—Comparing diachronies, ed. by Fleischer, Jürg & Simon, Horst J., 163196. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton.
Gallée, Johan Hendrik. 1910. Altsächsische Grammatik. 2nd edn. Halle: Niemeyer.
Gentner, Dedre, & Smith, Linsey A.. 2013. Analogical learning and reasoning. The Oxford handbook of cognitive psychology, ed. by Reisberg, Daniel, 668681. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hale, Mark, & Reiss, Charles. 2008. The phonological enterprise. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hermann, Eduard. 1931. Lautgesetz und Analogie (Abhandlungen der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Philologisch-Historische Klasse, neue Folge 23, 3). Berlin: Weidmannsche Buchhandlung.
Hock, Hans Henrich. 1991. Principles of historical linguistics. 2nd edn. Berlin: Mouton.
Hock, Hans H., & Joseph, Brian D.. 2009. Language history, language change, and language relationship. 2nd edn. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Idiatov, Dmitry. 2017. Word-final consonant epenthesis in Northeastern Nigerian English. English Language and Linguistics, published online September 12, 2017 (pp. 138). https://doi.org/10.1017/S1360674317000429.
Jacobs, Neil G. 2005. Yiddish a linguistic introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kienle, Richard von. 1969. Historische Laut- und Formenlehre des Deutschen. 2nd edn. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
Kluge, Friedrich. 1975. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. 21st edn. Berlin: de Gruyter.
Kyes, Robert. 1983. Dictionary of the Old Low and Central Franconian psalms and glosses. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
Krahe, Hans, & Meid, Wolfgang. 1969a. Germanische Sprachwissenschaft II: Formenlehre. Berlin: de Gruyter.
Krahe, Hans, & Meid, Wolfgang. 1969b. Germanische Sprachwissenschaft III: Wortbildungslehre. Berlin: de Gruyter.
Krause, Thomas, & Zeldes, Amir. 2016. ANNIS3: A new architecture for generic corpus query and visualization. Literary and Linguistic Computing 31. 118139.
Labov, William. 1966. The social stratification of English in New York City, Washington, DC: The Center for Applied Linguistics.
Labov, William. 1994. Principles of linguistic change, vol. 1: Internal factors. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
Lasch, Agathe. 1974. Mittelniederdeutsche Grammatik. Tübingen: Niemeyer. [Reprinted from 1914].
Lühr, Rosemarie. 1984. Reste der athematischen Konjugation in den germanischen Sprachen. Das Germanische und die Rekonstruktion der indogermanischen Grundsprache, ed. by Untermann, Jürgen & Brogyanyi, Bela, 25–90. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Mettke, Heinz. 1970. Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik. Leipzig: VEB Bibliographisches Institut.
Noreen, Adolf. 1923. Altisländische und Altnorwegische Grammatik (Laut- und Flexionslehre). Halle: Niemeyer.
Nübling, Damaris. 2013. Historische Sprachwissenschaft des Deutschen. 4th edn. Tübingen: Narr.
Ohala, John J. 1981. The listener as a source of sound change. Papers from the Parasession on Language and Behavior, ed. by Masek, Carrie S., Hendrick, Roberta A., & Miller, Mary Frances, 178203. Chicago, IL: Chicago Linguistic Society.
Ohala, John J. 2012. The listener as a source of sound change: An update. The initiation of sound change, ed. by Solé, Maria-Josep & Recasens, Daniel, 2135. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Orešnik, Janez. 1980. On the dental accretion in certain 2nd p. sg. verbal forms of Icelandic, Faroese, and the old West Germanic languages. Íslenskt mál 2. 195211. Reprinted in Pétursson 1985:191–207.
Paraschkewow, Boris. 2003. Zur Polygenese des -t in der Verbalendung -st. Zeitschrift für Germanistische Linguistik 31. 382385.
Paul, Hermann. 1879. Beitraege zur Geschichte der Lautentwickelung und Formenassociation. Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur 6. 538560.
Paul, Hermann. 1886. Principien der Sprachgeschichte. 2nd edn. Halle: Niemeyer.
Paul, Hermann. 1916. Deutsche Grammatik, vol. 1. Halle: Niemeyer.
Paul, Hermann. 1920. Prinzipien der Sprachgeschichte. 5th edn. Halle: Niemeyer.
Paul, Hermann. 1989. Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik. 23rd edn., ed. by Wiehl, Peter & Grosse, Siegfried. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
Pétursson, Magnús (ed.). 1985. Studies in the phonology and morphology of Modern Icelandic. Hamburg: Helmut Buske.
Pfalz, Anton. 1918. Beiträge zur Kunde der bayerisch-österreichischen Mundarten (Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Philosophisch-historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte 190, vol. 2). Vienna: Hölder.
Pfeifer, Wolfgang (ed.). 1993. Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Deutschen. 2nd edn. Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag.
Pietsch, Lukas. 2005. Variable grammars: Verbal agreement in northern dialects of English. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
Pinker, Steven. 1999. Words and rules. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
Prokosch, Eduard. 1939. A comparative Germanic grammar. Philadelphia, PA: Linguistic Society of America.
Rabanus, Stefan. 2008. Morphologisches Minimum Distinktionen und Synkretismen im Minimalsatz hochdeutscher Dialekte (ZDL-Beiheft 134). Stuttgart: Steiner.
Referenzkorpus Altdeutsch. Available at www.deutschdiachrondigital.de, accessed on June 15, 2017.
Ringe, Don. 2006. A linguistic history of English, vol. 1: From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ringe, Don, & Taylor, Ann. 2014. A linguistic history of English, vol. 2: The development of Old English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rowley, Anthony R. 1994. Morphologie aus Syntax - natürlich. Zur Flexion der Nebensatzeinleiter in nordostbayerischen Dialekten. Verhandlungen des Internationalen Dialektologenkongresses, Band 3 (Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik. Beihefte 76), ed. by Viereck, Wolfgang, 488497. Stuttgart: Steiner.
Salmons, Joseph. 2012. A history of German. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schatz, Josef. 1927. Althochdeutsche Grammatik. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Scherer, Wilhelm. 1868. Zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. Berlin: Duncker.
Schirmunski, Viktor M. 1962. Deutsche Mundartkunde. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
Schrodt, Richard. 2004. Althochdeutsche Grammatik II Syntax. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
Sehrt, Edward H. 1925. Vollständiges Wörterbuch zum Heliand und zur altsächsischen Genesis. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Sihler, Andrew. 1986. Germanic second person endings in -st. Münchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft 47. 193215.
Skousen, Royal. 1989. Analogical modeling of language. Boston, MA: Kluwer.
Somers, Katerina. 2011. The introduction and extension of the -st ending in Old High German. Journal of Germanic Linguistics 23. 141181.
Steller, Walther. 1928. Abriss der altfriesischen Grammatik. Halle: Niemeyer.
Stump, Gregory T. 2016. Inflectional paradigms: Content and form at the syntax-morphology interface. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Weiß, Helmut. 2005. Inflected complementizers in continental West Germanic dialects. Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik 72. 148166.
Wiesinger, Peter. 1989. Die Flexionsmorphologie des Verbums im Bairischen. Vienna: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften.
Wright, Joseph, & Wright, Mary Elizabeth. 1908. Old English grammar. London: Oxford University Press.
Wurzel, Wolfgang Ullrich. 1984. Flexionsmorphologie und Natürlichkeit. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
Wurzel, Wolfgang Ullrich. 1989. Inflectional morphology and naturalness. Boston, MA: Kluwer.
Zwart, Jan-Wouter. 1997. Morphosyntax of verb movement: A minimalist approach to the syntax of Dutch. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
“graft, n.1”. OED Online. March 2017. Oxford: Oxford University Press. www.oed.com.gate.lib.buffalo.edu/view/Entry/80476, accessed on May 17, 2017.
“tuft, n.”. OED Online. March 2017. Oxford: Oxford University Press. www.oed.com.gate.lib.buffalo.edu/view/Entry/207281, accessed on May 17, 2017.
“whilst, adv. and conj. (and prep.)”. OED Online. March 2017. Oxford: Oxford University Press. www.oed.com.gate.lib.buffalo.edu/view/Entry/228351, accessed on May 23, 2017.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Germanic Linguistics
  • ISSN: 1470-5427
  • EISSN: 1475-3014
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-germanic-linguistics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed