This paper is the second of a pair describing two-point velocity measurements in fully developed pipe flow. A method of processing hot-film anemometer signals to identify intervals of high energy production (‘bursts’) in wall turbulence is presented. The method uses filtered cross-stream spatial derivatives of the axial velocity fluctuations. It is demonstrated to be more sensitive to ‘bursts’ than several other methods of indentification. The bursts identified in this manner are shown to have similar characteristics to those observed in visual studies.
The technique has been applied to the wall region of turbulent pipe flow. Mean burst rates have been obtained at various distances from the wall for three Reynolds numbers. It is shown that the mean burst rate cannot be reliably obtained from a previously used technique based on the autocorrelation of the axial velocity fluctuations.
On the basis of our experiments, the mean burst rate and the turbulent shear stress have been found to vary similarly with distance from the wall. In the region near the wall where the shear stress is constant the mean burst rate is independent of the kinematic viscosity.
Some characteristics of the velocity fluctuations during burst intervals have been studied. All the bursts began with a relative minimum in the axial velocity fluctuations followed by a peak in the cross-stream spatial derivative. A second peak always occurred midway through the burst. The sequence of events is somewhat similar to that in the last stage of laminar-to-turbulent transition.