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Vibrational relaxation effects in weak shock waves in air and the structure of sonic bangs

  • J. P. Hodgson (a1)

Abstract

Vibrational relaxation of oxygen and nitrogen is shown to be important in determining the structure of weak shock waves in air. Of particular interest are waves with pressure jumps of 100Pa1 Pa ≡ 1 pascal = 1 N m−2. or less which are present in the atmosphere as sonic bangs. It is found that the structure of the waves depends on shock strength, ambient pressure, temperature and humidity.

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Clarke, J. F. & Rodgers, J. B. 1965 Shock waves in a gas with several relaxing internal energy modes. J. Fluid Mech. 21, 591.
Evans, L. B. 1972 Vibrational relaxation in moist nitrogen. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 51, 409.
Henderson, M. C. 1962 Vibrational relaxation in nitrogen and other gases. J. Acouust. Soc. Am. 34, 349.
Hodgson, J. P. & Johannesen, N. H. 1971 Real-gas effects in very weak shock waves in the atmosphere and the structure of sonic bangs. J. Fluid Mech. 50, 17.
Monk, R. G. 1969 Thermal relaxation in humid air. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 46, 580.
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Vibrational relaxation effects in weak shock waves in air and the structure of sonic bangs

  • J. P. Hodgson (a1)

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