Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Unsteady aerodynamics of dragonfly using a simple wing–wing model from the perspective of a force decomposition

  • CHENG-TA HSIEH (a1) (a2), CHUN-FEI KUNG (a1) (a2), CHIEN C. CHANG (a1) (a2) and CHIN-CHOU CHU (a1)

Abstract

Insects perform their multitude of flight skills at frequencies of tens to hundreds of Hertz, and the aerodynamics of these skills are fundamentally unsteady. Intuitively, unsteadiness may come from unsteady wing motion, unsteady surface vorticity or vorticity being shed into the rear and front wakes. In this study, we propose to investigate the aerodynamics of dragonfly using a simplified wing–wing model from the perspective of many-body force decomposition and the associated force elements. Insect flight usually operates at Reynolds numbers of the order of several hundreds, at which the surface vorticity is shown to play a substantial role. There are important cases where the added mass effect is non-negligible. Nevertheless, the major contribution to the forces comes from the vorticity within the flow. This study focused on the effects of mutual interactions due to phase differences between the fore- and hindwings in the translational as well as rotational motions. It is well known that the dynamic stall vortex is an important mechanism for an unsteady wing to gain lift. In analysing the life cycles of lift and thrust elements, we also associate some high lift and thrust with the mechanisms identified as ‘riding on’ lift elements, ‘driven by’ thrust elements and ‘sucked by’ thrust elements, by which a wing makes use of a shed or fused vortex below, in front of, and behind it, respectively. In addition, a shear layer attaching to each wing may also provide significant thrust elements.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Email address for correspondence: mechang@iam.ntu.edu.tw; chucc@iam.ntu.edu.tw

References

Hide All
Alexander, D. E. 1984 Unusual phase relationships between the forewings and hindwings in flying dragonflies. J. Expl Biol. 109, 379383.
Azuma, A., Azuma, S., Watanabe, I. & Furuta, T. 1985 Flight mechanics of a dragonfly. J. Expl Biol. 116, 79107.
Azuma, A. & Watanabe, T. 1988 Flight performance of a dragonfly. J. Expl Biol. 137, 221252.
Biesheuvel, A. & Hagmeijer, R. 2006 On the force on a body moving in a fluid. Fluid Dyn. Res. 38, 716742.
Burgers, J. M. 1920 On the resistance of fluids and vortex motion. Proc. K. Akad. Westenschappen te Amsterdam, pp. 774–782.
Chang, C. C. 1992 Potential flow and forces for incompressible viscous flow. Proc. R. Soc. A–Math. Phys. Engng Sci. 437, 517525.
Chang, C. C., Yang, S. H. & Chu, C. C. 2008 A many-body force decomposition with applications to flow about bluff bodies. J. Fluid Mech. 600, 95104.
Dickinson, M. H., Lehmann, F. O. & Sane, S. P. 1999 Wing rotation and the aerodynamic basis of insect flight. Science 284, 19541960.
Howarth, L. 1935 The theoretical determination of the lift coefficient for a thin elliptic cylinder. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 149, 558586.
Howe, M. S. 1995 On the force and moment on a body in an incompressible fluid, with application to rigid bodies and bubbles at high and low Reynolds numbers. Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 48, 401426.
Howe, M. S., Lauchle, G. C. & Wang, J. 2001 Aerodynamic lift and drag fluctuations of a sphere. J. Fluid Mech. 436, 4157.
Hsieh, C. T., Chang, C. C. & Chu, C. C. 2009 Revisiting the aerodynamics of hovering flight using simple models. J. Fluid Mech. 623, 121148.
Kambe, T. 1986 Acoustics emissions by vortex motions. J. Fluid Mech. 173, 643666.
Lan, C. E. 1979 The unsteady quasi-vortex-lattice method with applications to animal propulsion. J. Fluid Mech. 93, 747765.
Landau, L. D. & Lifshitz, E. M. 1987 Fluid Mechanics, 2nd edn. Pergamon.
Lighthill, M. J. 1973 On Weis-Fogh mechanism of lift generation. J. Fluid Mech. 60, 117.
Lighthill, M. J. 1979 Wave and hydrodynamic loading. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Behaviour of Off-Shore Structures, vol. 1, pp. 140. BHRA Cranfield.
Lighthill, M. J. 1986 Fundamentals concerning wave loading on offshore structures. J. Fluid Mech. 173, 667681.
Maxworthy, T. 1979 Experiments on the Weis-Fogh mechanism of lift generation by insects in hovering flight. Part I. Dynamics of the fling. J. Fluid Mech. 93, 4763.
Maybury, W. J. & Lehmann, F. O. 2004 The fluid dynamics of flight control by kinematic phase lag variation between two robotic insect wings. J. Expl Biol. 207, 47074726.
Milne-Thomson, L. M. 1968 Theoretical Hydrodynamics, 5th edn. Macmillan.
Norberg, R. A. 1975 Hovering flight of the dragonfly Aeschna juncea L. In Kinematics and Aerodynamics (ed. Wu, T. Y.-T., Brokaw, C. J. & Brennen, C.), vol. 2, pp. 763781. Plenum.
Ragazzo, C. G. & Tabak, E. G. 2007 On the force and torque on systems of rigid bodies: a remark on an integral formula due to Howe. Phys. Fluids 19, 057108.
Saharon, D. & Luttges, M. W. 1988 Visualization of unsteady separated flow produces by mechanically driven dragonfly wing kinematics model. AIAA J. 880569, 123.
Sun, M. & Lan, S. L. 2004 A computational study of the aerodynamic forces and power requirements of dragonfly (Aeshna juncea) hovering. J. Expl Biol. 207, 18871901.
Thomas, P. D. & Lombard, C. K. 1979 Geometric conservation law and its application to flow computations on moving grids. AIAA J. 17, 10301037.
Thomas, A. L. R., Taylor, G. K., Srygley, R. B., Nudds, R. L. & Bomphrey, R. J. 2004 Dragonfly flight: free-flight and tethered flow visualizations reveal a diverse array of unsteady lift-generating mechanisms, controlled primarily via angle of attack. J. Expl Biol. 207, 42994323.
Wakeling, J. M. & Ellington, C. P. 1997 Dragonfly flight. Part II. Velocities, accelerations, and kinematics of flapping flight. J. Expl Biol. 200, 557582.
Wang, Z. J. 2000 Two-dimensional mechanism for insect hovering. Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 22162219.
Wang, Z. J. & Russell, D. 2007 Effect of forewing and hindwing interactions on aerodynamic forces and power in hovering dragonfly flight. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 148101.
Weis-Fogh, T. 1973 Quick estimates of flight fitness in hovering animals, including novel mechanisms for lift production. J. Expl Biol. 59, 169230.
Wu, J. C. 1981 Theory for aerodynamic force and moment in viscous flows. AIAA J. 19, 432441.
MathJax
MathJax is a JavaScript display engine for mathematics. For more information see http://www.mathjax.org.

JFM classification

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed