Skip to main content Accessibility help

Turbulence in the noise-producing region of a circular jet

  • P. Bradshaw (a1), D. H. Ferriss (a1) and R. F. Johnson (a1)


The flow in the noise-producing region of a circular jet is found to be dominated by a group of large eddies, containing nearly a quarter of the turbulent shear stress in the quasi-plane region of the shear layer: their contribution to the shear stress decreases as the effects of axisymmetry become noticeable at more than about two diameters downstream of the nozzle. These large eddies appear to be almost entirely responsible for the irrotational fluctuations near the nozzle, which, for this and other reasons, are larger relative to the reference dynamic pressure than in other shear flows. As a consequence of this, the convection velocity near the high- and low-velocity edges of the flow is biased towards the mean velocity in the high-intensity region. The dominance of the large eddies therefore explains the measurements of near-field pressure fluctuations by Franklin & Foxwell (1958), and of convection velocity by Davies, Barratt & Fisher (1963) and the present authors. The strength of these large eddies, compared with those in the boundary layer or wake, is remarkable.

The large eddies appear to be mixing-jets similar to those found by Grant (1958) in the wake, but with their projection in the (y, z)-plane inclined at about 45° to the y (radial) axis instead of lying along the y-axis as in the wake.

It is suggested that the augmentation of these large eddies by artificial means could be used to increase the mixing rate and permit the reduction of jet noise by means of acceptably short ejector shrouds.

The medium-scale motion is found to be far from isotropic in scales, although the two scales associated with a given vorticity component are more nearly equal. This phenomenon is also noticeable in the wake.

It is found that the departure from self-preservation, which starts when the shear layer thickness is no longer small compared with the nozzle radius, does not grossly affect the region of high turbulence intensity and maximum noise production until this region itself is no longer small compared with the radius. The maximum shear stress seven diameters downstream of the exit is still 70% of its value near the exit, and the non-dimensional mean velocity gradient is practically unchanged.



Hide All
Benney, D. J. 1961 J. Fluid Mech. 10, 209.
Bradshaw, P. 1963a Nat. Phys. Lab. Aero. Note no. 1015.
Bradshaw, P. 1963b Nat. Phys. Lab. Aero. Rep. no. 1064.
Bradshaw, P. & Johnson, R. F. 1963 Nat. Phys. Lab. Note on Appl. Sci. no. 33.
Coles, D. 1962 In Mécanique de la Turbulence, Colloques Internationaux du C.N.R.S., no. 108.
Corrsin, S. & Uberoi, M. S. 1950 Nat. Adv. Comm. Aero. (Wash.), Rep. no. 998.
Corrsin, S. & Uberoi, M. S. 1951 Nat. Comm. Aero. (Wash.), Rep. no. 1040.
Davies, P. O. A. L., Barratt, M. J. & Fisher, M. J. 1963 J. Fluid Mech. 15, 337.
Favre, A., Gaviglio, J. J. & Dumas, R. 1957 J. Fluid Mech. 2, 313.
Fisher, M. J. & Davies, P. O. A. L. 1964 J. Fluid Mech. 18, 97.
Ffowcs Williams, J. E. 1963 Phil. Trans. A, 255, 469.
Franklin, R. E. & Foxwell, J. H. 1958 Aero. Res. Counc. (London), R. and M. no. 3161.
Grant, H. L. 1958 J. Fluid Mech. 4, 149.
Johnson, R. F. 1962 Aero. Res. Counc. (London), Curr. Pap. no. 685.
Kistler, A. L. & Vrebalovich, T. 1961 Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. II, 6, 207.
Klebanoff, P. S. 1955 Nat. Adv. Comm. Aero. (Wash.), Rep. no. 1247.
Klebanoff, P. S., Tidstrom, K. D. & Sargent, L. M. 1962 J. Fluid Mech. 12, 1.
Kolmogorov, A. N. 1962 J. Fluid Mech. 13, 82.
Kolpin, M. A. 1964 J. Fluid Mech. 18, 529.
Laurence, J. C. 1956 Nat. Adv. Comm. Aero. (Wash.), Rep. no. 1292.
Liepmann, H. W. & Laufer, J. 1947 Nat. Adv. Comm. Aero. (Wash.), Tech. Note no. 1257.
Lighthill, M. J. 1952 Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 211, 364.
Lighthill, M. J. 1954 Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 222, 1.
Lilley, G. M. 1958 Aero. Res. Counc. (London), Rep. no. 20,376.
Lilley, G. M. & Hodgson, T. H. 1960 AGARD Rep. no. 276.
Maydew, R. C. & Reed, J. F. 1963 Amer. Inst. Aero. & Astro. J. 1, 1443.
Möllo-Christensen, E. 1963 Mass. Inst. Tech. Rep. ASRL-1006.
Phillips, O. M. 1955 Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 51, 220.
Richards, E. J. & Ffowcs Williams, J. E. 1959 A.A.S.U., Rep. no. 118.
Taylor, G. I. 1938 Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 164, 476.
Townsend, A. A. 1956 The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow. Cambridge University Press.
Townsend, A. A. 1958 IUTAM Boundary Layer Research Symposium. Berlin: Springer.
Wills, J. A. B. 1963 Nat. Phys. Lab. Aero., Rep. no. 1050, and J. Fluid Mech. (in the press).
MathJax is a JavaScript display engine for mathematics. For more information see

Turbulence in the noise-producing region of a circular jet

  • P. Bradshaw (a1), D. H. Ferriss (a1) and R. F. Johnson (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed