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Scale diagrams for forced plumes

  • B. R. Morton (a1) and Jason Middleton (a1)


A wide range of behaviour for turbulent forced plumes generated by vertical emission of heated or other buoyant fluid from finite sources in extensive and otherwise still uniform environments can be represented on a single non-dimensional diagram of characteristic heights, plotted against a parameter Γ, which for forced plumes represents the balance of flow conditions imposed at the physical source. The set of curves presented includes the maximum height of ascent for negatively buoyant plumes, and the height of transition from jet-like to plume-like behaviour above sources emitting buoyant fluid with excess momentum. The levels of various point and planar virtual sources are displayed also for comparison with earlier solutions. This scale diagram relates ascent and transition heights to the initial conditions at actual sources, in contrast to earlier presentations which have unduly emphasized virtual sources.

A scale diagram for maximum ascent heights in stably stratified environments permits choice of the range of source conditions for a specified height of ascent and ambient stratification.



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Abraham, G. 1967 Jets with negative buoyancy in homogeneous fluids. J. Hydraulic Res. 4, 235248.
Morton, B. R. 1959 Forced plumes. J. Fluid Mech. 5, 151163.
Morton, B. R. 1971 The choice of conservation equations for plume models. J. Geophys. Res. 76, 74097416.
Rouse, H., Yih, C. S. & Humphreys, H. W. 1952 Gravitational convection from a boundary source. Tellus, 4, 201210.
Teleord, J. W. 1966 The convective mechanism in clear air. J. Atnaos. Sci. 23, 652666.
Turner, J. S. 1969 Buoyant plumes and thermals. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech. 1, 2944.
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Scale diagrams for forced plumes

  • B. R. Morton (a1) and Jason Middleton (a1)


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