Anderson, W., Barros, J. M., Christensen, K. T. & Awasthi, A.
2015
Numerical and experimental study of mechanisms responsible for turbulent secondary flows in boundary layer flows over spanwise heterogeneous roughness. J. Fluid Mech.
768, 316–347.
Anderson, W. & Meneveau, C.
2011
Dynamic roughness model for large-eddy simulation of turbulent flow over multiscale, fractal-like rough surfaces. J. Fluid Mech.
679, 288–314.
Barros, J. M. & Christensen, K. T.
2014
Observations of turbulent secondary flows in a rough-wall boundary layer. J. Fluid Mech.
748, R1.
Castro, I. P.
2007
Rough-wall boundary layers: mean flow universality. J. Fluid Mech.
585, 469–485.
Chan, L., MacDonald, M., Chung, D., Hutchins, N. & Ooi, A.
2018
Secondary motion in turbulent pipe flow with three-dimensional roughness. J. Fluid Mech.
854, 5–33.
Deser, S.
1967
Covariant decomposition of symmetric tensors and the gravitational Cauchy problem. Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré A
7, 149–188.
Finnigan, J.
2000
Turbulence in plant canopies. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.
32 (1), 519–571.
Flack, K. A., Schultz, M. P. & Connelly, J. S.
2007
Examination of a critical roughness height for outer layer similarity. Phys. Fluids
19 (9), 095104.
Hwang, H. G. & Lee, J. H.
2018
Secondary flows in turbulent boundary layers over longitudinal surface roughness. Phys. Rev. Fluids
3, 014608.
Jiménez, J.
2004
Turbulent flows over rough walls. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.
36, 173–196.
Jiménez, J.
2016
Optimal fluxes and Reynolds stresses. J. Fluid Mech.
809, 585–600.
Kevin, K., Monty, J. P., Bai, H. L., Pathikonda, G., Nugroho, B., Barros, J. M., Christensen, K. T. & Hutchins, N.
2017
Cross-stream stereoscopic particle image velocimetry of a modified turbulent boundary layer over directional surface pattern. J. Fluid Mech.
813, 412–435.
Manes, C., Pokrajac, D., Coceal, O. & McEwan, I.
2008
On the significance of form-induced stress in rough wall turbulent boundary layers. Acta Geophys.
56 (3), 845–861.
Medjnoun, T., Vanderwel, C. & Ganapathisubramani, B.
2018
Characteristics of turbulent boundary layers over smooth surfaces with spanwise heterogeneities. J. Fluid Mech.
838, 516–543.
Morgan, J. & McKeon, B. J.
2018
Relation between a singly-periodic roughness geometry and spatio-temporal turbulence characteristics. Intl J. Heat Fluid Flow
71, 322–333.
Nezu, I. & Nakagawa, H.
1984
Cellular secondary currents in straight conduit. J. Hydraul Engng ASCE
110 (2), 173–193.
Nikora, V., Goring, D., McEwan, I. & Griffiths, G.
2001
Spatially averaged open-channel flow over rough bed. J. Hydraul Engng ASCE
127 (2), 123–133.
Nikora, V., McEwan, I., McLean, S., Coleman, S., Pokrajac, D. & Walters, R.
2007
Double-averaging concept for rough-bed open-channel and overland flows: theoretical background. J. Hydraul Engng ASCE
133 (8), 873–883.
Prasad, A. K.
2000
Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry. Exp. Fluids
29 (2), 103–116.
Raupach, M. R., Antonia, R. A. & Rajagopalan, S.
1991
Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers. Appl. Mech. Rev.
44 (1), 1–25.
Raupach, M. R. & Shaw, R. H.
1982
Averaging procedures for flow within vegetation canopies. Boundary-Layer Meteorology
22 (1), 79–90.
Schlatter, P. & Örlü, R.
2010
Assessment of direct numerical simulation data of turbulent boundary layers. J. Fluid Mech.
659, 116–126.
Townsend, A. A.
1956
The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow, 1st edn. Cambridge University Press.
Townsend, A. A.
1976
The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press.
Vanderwel, C. & Ganapathisubramani, B.
2015
Effects of spanwise spacing on large-scale secondary flows in rough-wall turbulent boundary layers. J. Fluid Mech.
774, R2.
Wang, Z.-Q. & Cheng, N.-S.
2005
Secondary flows over artificial bed strips. Adv. Water Resour.
28 (5), 441–450.
Wu, J.-Z., Zhou, Y. & Wu, J.-M.1996 Reduced stress tensor and dissipation and the transport of Lamb vector. Tech. Rep. 96-21, ICASE.
Yang, J. & Anderson, W.
2018
Numerical study of turbulent channel flow over surfaces with variable spanwise heterogeneities: topographically-driven secondary flows affect outer-layer similarity of turbulent length scales. Flow Turbul. Combust.
100 (1), 1–17.