The dynamical behaviour of stretchable, orientable microstructure suspended in a general three-dimensional fluid flow is investigated. Model equations given by Olbricht, Rallison & Leal (1982) are examined in the case of microstructure travelling through arbitrarily complicated flows of the carrier fluid. As in the two-dimensional analysis of Szeri, Wiggins & Leal (1991), one must first treat the orientation dynamics problem; only then can the equation for stretch of the microstructure be analyzed rationally. In three-dimensional flows that are steady in the Lagrangian frame, attractors for the orientation dynamics are shown to be equilibria or limit cycles; this asymptotic behaviour was first deduced by Bretherton (1962). In three-dimensional flows that are time periodic in the Lagrangian frame (e.g. recirculating flows), the orientation dynamics may be characterized by periodic or quasi-periodic attractors. Thus, robust (generic) behaviour in these cases is always characterized by a single global attractor; there is no asymptotic dependence of orientation dynamics on the initial orientation. The type of asymptotic orientation dynamics – steady, periodic, or quasi-periodic - is signified by a simple criterion. Details of the relevant bifurcations, as well as history-dependent strong flow criteria are developed. Examples which illustrate the various types of behaviour are given.