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Maximal heat transfer between two parallel plates

  • Shingo Motoki (a1), Genta Kawahara (a1) and Masaki Shimizu (a1)


The divergence-free time-independent velocity field has been determined so as to maximise heat transfer between two parallel plates with a constant temperature difference under the constraint of fixed total enstrophy. The present variational problem is the same as that first formulated by Hassanzadeh et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 751, 2014, pp. 627–662); however, the search range for optimal states has been extended to a three-dimensional velocity field. A scaling of the Nusselt number $Nu$ with the Péclet number $Pe$ (i.e., the square root of the non-dimensionalised enstrophy with thermal diffusion time scale), $Nu\sim Pe^{2/3}$ , has been found in the three-dimensional optimal states, corresponding to the asymptotic scaling with the Rayleigh number $Ra$ , $Nu\sim Ra^{1/2}$ , expected to appear in an ultimate state, and thus to the Taylor energy dissipation law in high-Reynolds-number turbulence. At $Pe\sim 10^{0}$ , a two-dimensional array of large-scale convection rolls provides maximal heat transfer. A three-dimensional optimal solution emerges from bifurcation on the two-dimensional solution branch at $Pe\sim 10^{1}$ , and the three-dimensional solution branch has been tracked up to $Pe\sim 10^{4}$ (corresponding to $Ra\approx 2.7\times 10^{6}$ ). At $Pe\gtrsim 10^{3}$ , the optimised velocity fields consist of convection cells with hierarchical self-similar vortical structures, and the temperature fields exhibit a logarithmic-like mean profile near the walls.


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Maximal heat transfer between two parallel plates

  • Shingo Motoki (a1), Genta Kawahara (a1) and Masaki Shimizu (a1)


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