## References

Alford, M. H.
2003
Redistribution of energy available for ocean mixing by long-range propagation of internal waves. Nature
423, 159–162.

Allshouse, M. R., Lee, F. M., Morrison, P. J. & Swinney, H. L.
2016
Internal wave pressure, velocity, and energy flux from density perturbations. Phys. Rev. Fluids
1, 014301.

Balmforth, N. J., Ierley, G. R. & Young, W. R.
2002
Tidal conversion by subcritical topography. J. Phys. Oceanogr.
32, 2900–2914.

Clark, H. A. & Sutherland, B. R.
2010
Generation, propagation, and breaking of an internal wave beam. Phys. Fluids
22, 076601.

Dalziel, S. B., Hughes, G. O. & Sutherland, B. R.
2000
Whole-field density measurements by ‘synthetic schlieren’. Exp. Fluids
28, 322–335.

Dettner, A., Paoletti, M. S. & Swinney, H. L.
2013
Internal tide and boundary current generation by tidal flow over topography. Phys. Fluids
25, 1–13.

Dossmann, Y., Rosevear, M. G., Griffiths, R. W., Hogg, A. M., Hughes, G. O. & Copeland, M.
2016
Experiments with mixing in stratified flow over a topographic ridge. J. Geophys. Res.
121, 6961–6977.

Echeverri, P., Flynn, M. R., Winters, K. B. & Peacock, T.
2009
Low-mode internal tide generation by topography: an experimental and numerical investigation. J. Fluid Mech.
636, 91–108.

Epstein, P. S.
1930
Reflection of waves in an inhomogeneous absorbing medium. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA
16, 627–637.

Gayen, B. & Sarkar, S.
2010
Turbulence during the generation of internal tide on a critical slope. Phys. Rev. Lett.
104, 218502.

Gayen, B. & Sarkar, S.
2011
Direct and large-eddy simulations of internal tide generation at a near-critical slope. J. Fluid Mech.
681, 48–79.

Gerkema, T., Lam, F.-P.A. & Maas, L. R. M.
2004
Internal tides in the Bay of Biscay: conversion rates and seasonal effects. Deep-Sea Res. II
51, 2995–3008.

Ghaemsaidi, S.J, Joubaud, S., Dauxois, T., Odier, P. & Peacock, T.
2016
Nonlinear internal wave penetration via parametric subharmonic instability. Phys. Fluids
28, 011703.

Ham, F. & Iaccarino, G.
2004
Energy conservation in collocated discretization schemes on unstructured meshes. In Annual Research Briefs, pp. 3–14. Stanford University.

King, B., Stone, M., Zhang, H. P., Gerkema, T., Marder, M., Scott, R. B. & Swinney, H. L.
2012
Buoyancy frequency profiles and internal semidiurnal tide turning depths in the oceans. J. Geophys. Res.
117, C04008.

King, B., Zhang, H. P. & Swinney, H. L.
2009
Tidal flow over three-dimensional topography in a stratified fluid. Phys. Fluids
21, 116601.

King, B., Zhang, H. P. & Swinney, H. L.
2010
Tidal flow over three-dimensional topography generates out-of-forcing-plane harmonics. Geophys. Res. Lett.
37, L14606.

Lamb, K. G.
2004
Nonlinear interaction among internal wave beams generated by tidal flow over supercritical topography. Geophys. Res. Lett.
31, L09313.

Lee, F. M., Paoletti, M. S., Swinney, H. L. & Morrison, P. J.
2014
Experimental determination of radiated internal wave power without pressure field data. Phys. Fluids
26, 046606.

Lekner, J.
2007
Reflectionless eigenstates of the sech^{2} potential. Am. J. Phys.
75, 1151–1157.

Llewellyn Smith, S. G. & Young, W. R.
2003
Tidal conversion at a very steep ridge. J. Fluid Mech.
495, 175–191.

Mahesh, K., Constantinescu, G. & Moin, P.
2004
A numerical method for large-eddy simulation in complex geometries. J. Comput. Phys.
197, 215–240.

Martin, J. P., Rudnick, D. L. & Pinkel, R.
2006
Spatially broad observations of internal waves in the upper ocean at the Hawaiian Ridge. J. Phys. Oceanogr.
36, 1085–1103.

Mathur, M. & Peacock, T.
2009
Internal wave beam propagation in non-uniform stratifications. J. Fluid Mech.
639, 133–152.

Munk, W. & Wunsch, C.
1998
Abyssal recipes II: energetics of tidal and wind mixing. Deep-Sea Res. I
45, 1977–2010.

Nash, J. D., Alford, M. H. & Kunze, E.
2005
Estimating internal wave energy fluxes in the ocean. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.
22, 1551–1570.

Niwa, Y. & Hibiya, T.
2004
Three-dimensional numerical simulation of M_{2} internal tides in the East China Sea. J. Geophys. Res.
109, C04027.

Paoletti, M. S., Drake, M. & Swinney, H. L.
2014
Internal tide generation in nonuniformly stratified deep oceans. J. Geophys. Res.
119, 1943–1956.

Paoletti, M. S. & Swinney, H. L.
2012
Propagating and evanescent internal waves in a deep ocean model. J. Fluid Mech.
706, 571–583.

Pinkel, R., Buijsman, M. & Klymak, J. M.
2012
Breaking topographic lee waves in a tidal channel in Luzon Strait. Oceanography
25, 160–165.

Pinkel, R., Goldin, M. A., Smith, J. A., Sun, O. M., Aja, A. A., Bui, M. N. & Hughen, T.
2011
The wirewalker: a vertically profiling instrument carrier powered by ocean waves. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.
28, 426–435.

Pöshl, G. & Teller, E.
1933
Bemerkungen zur Quantenmechanik des anharmonischen Oszilators. Z. Phys.
83, 143–151.

Rapaka, N. R., Gayen, B. & Sarkar, S.
2013
Tidal conversion and turbulence at a model ridge: direct and large eddy simulations. J. Fluid Mech.
715, 181–209.

Sutherland, B. R., Dalziel, S. B., Hughes, G. O. & Linden, P. F.
1999
Visualization and measurement of internal waves by ‘synthetic schlieren.’ Part 1. Vertically oscillating cylinder. J. Fluid Mech.
390, 93–126.

Wunsch, C. & Ferrari, R.
2004
Vertical mixing, energy and the general circulation of the oceans. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.
36, 281–314.

Zhang, L. & Swinney, H. L.
2014
Virtual seafloor reduces internal wave generation by tidal flow. Phys. Rev. Lett.
112, 104502.

Zilberman, N. V., Becker, J. M., Merrifield, M. A. & Carter, G. S.
2009
Model estimates of M2 internal tide generation over mid-atlantic ridge topography. J. Phys. Oceanogr.
39, 2635–2651.