Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The influence of fluid–structure interaction on cloud cavitation about a stiff hydrofoil. Part 1.

  • Samuel M. Smith (a1), James A. Venning (a1), Bryce W. Pearce (a1), Yin Lu Young (a2) and Paul A. Brandner (a1)...

Abstract

The physics associated with various cavitation regimes about a hydrofoil is investigated in a variable-pressure water tunnel using high-speed photography and synchronised force measurements. Experiments were conducted on a relatively stiff stainless steel hydrofoil at a chord-based Reynolds number, $Re=0.8\times 10^{6}$ for cavitation numbers, $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$ , ranging from 0.2 to 1.2, with the hydrofoil experiencing sheet, cloud and supercavitation regimes. The NACA0009 model of tapered planform was vertically mounted in a cantilevered configuration to a six-component force balance at an incidence, $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6FC}$ , of $6^{\circ }$ to the oncoming flow. Tip deformations and cavitation behaviour were recorded with synchronised force measurements utilising two high-speed cameras mounted underneath and to the side of the test section. Break-up and shedding of an attached cavity was found to be due to either interfacial instabilities, re-entrant jet formation, shockwave propagation or a complex coupled mechanism, depending on $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$ . Three primary shedding modes are identified. The Type IIa and IIb re-entrant jet-driven oscillations exhibit a non-linear dependence on $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$ , decreasing in frequency with decreasing $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$ due to growth in the cavity length, and occur at higher $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$ values (Type IIa: 0.4–1.0; Type IIb: 0.7–0.9). Shockwave-driven Type I shedding occurs for lower $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$ values (0.3–0.6) with the oscillation frequency being practically independent of $\unicode[STIX]{x1D70E}$ . The Type IIa oscillations locked in to the first sub-harmonic of the hydrofoil’s first bending mode in water which has been modulated due to the reduced added mass of the vapour cavity. Supplementary movies are available with the online version of the paper.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Email address for correspondence: ssmith18@utas.edu.au

References

Hide All
Akcabay, D. T., Chae, E. J., Young, Y. L., Ducoin, A. & Astolfi, J. A. 2014 Cavity induced vibration of flexible hydrofoils. J. Fluids Struct. 49 (Suppl. C), 463484.
Akcabay, D. T. & Young, Y. L. 2014 Influence of cavitation on the hydroelastic stability of hydrofoils. J. Fluids Struct. 49, 170185.
Akcabay, D. T. & Young, Y. L. 2015 Parametric excitations and lock-in of flexible hydrofoils in two-phase flows. J. Fluids Struct. 57, 344356.
Arndt, R. E. A. & Keller, A. P. 2003 A case study of international cooperation: 30 years of collaboration in cavitation research. In ASME/JSME 2003 4th Joint Fluids Summer Engineering Conference, pp. 153166. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Ausoni, P., Farhat, M., Avellan, F., Escaler, X. & Egusquiza, E. 2005 Cavitation effects on fluid structure interaction in the case of a 2D hydrofoil. In ASME 2005 Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting, pp. 617622. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Ausoni, P., Farhat, M., Escaler, X., Egusquiza, E. & Avellan, F. 2007 Cavitation influence on von Karman vortex shedding and induced hydrofoil vibrations. Trans. ASME J. Fluids Engng 129 (8), 966973.
Avellan, F., Dupont, P. & Ryhming, I. L. 1988 Generation mechanism and dynamics of cavitation vortices downstream of a fixed leading edge cavity. In 17th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, pp. 113. National Academy Press.
Bisplinghoff, R. L., Ashley, H. & Halfman, R. L. 1955 Aeroelasticity, Addison-Wesley Publishing Corporation.
Blevins, R. D. 1977 Flow-induced Vibration. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
Brandner, P. A. 2018 Microbubbles and cavitation: microscales to macroscales. In Keynote Lecture: Tenth International Symposium on Cavitation, pp. 710715. AMSE Press.
Brandner, P. A., Lecoffre, Y. & Walker, G. J. 2007 Design considerations in the development of a modern cavitation tunnel. In 16th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, pp. 630637. School of Engineering, University of Queensland.
Brandner, P. A., Walker, G. J., Niekamp, P. N. & Anderson, B. 2010 An experimental investigation of cloud cavitation about a sphere. J. Fluid Mech. 656, 147176.
Brennen, C. E. 1969 The dynamic balances of dissolved air and heat in natural cavity flows. J. Fluid Mech. 37 (1), 115127.
Brennen, C. E. 1995 Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics. Oxford University Press.
Brennen, C. E. 2005 Fundamentals of Multiphase Flow. Cambridge University Press.
Brennen, C. E., Oey, K. T. & Babcock, C. D. 1980 Leading-edge flutter of supercavitating hydrofoils. J. Ship Res. 24 (3), 135146.
Callenaere, M., Franc, J., Michel, J. & Riondet, M. 2001 The cavitation instability induced by the development of a re-entrant jet. J. Fluid Mech. 444, 223256.
Clarke, D. B., Butler, D., Crowley, B. & Brandner, P. A. 2014 High-speed full-field deflection measurements on a hydrofoil using digital image correlation. In 30th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics. Office of Naval Research.
Crespo, A. 1969 Sound and shockwaves in liquids containing bubbles. Phys. Fluids 12 (11), 22742282.
De La Torre, O., Escaler, X., Egusquiza, E. & Farhat, M. 2013 Experimental investigation of added mass effects on a hydrofoil under cavitation conditions. J. Fluids Struct. 39, 173187.
Ducoin, A., Astolfi, J. A. & Sigrist, J. 2012 An experimental analysis of fluid structure interaction on a flexible hydrofoil in various flow regimes including cavitating flow. Eur. J. Mech. (B/Fluids) 36, 6374.
Foeth, E. J., Van Doorne, C. W. H., Van Terwisga, T. & Wieneke, B. 2006 Time resolved piv and flow visualization of 3D sheet cavitation. Exp. Fluids 40 (4), 503513.
Franc, J. 2001 Partial cavity instabilities and re-entrant jet. In Keynote Lecture: Fourth International Symposium on Cavitation. California Institute of Technology.
Franc, J. & Michel, J. 2004 Fundamentals of Cavitation. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Furness, R. A. & Hutton, S. P. 1975 Experimental and theoretical studies of two-dimensional fixed-type cavities. Trans. ASME J. Fluids Engng 97 (4), 515521.
Ganesh, H., Mäkiharju, S. A. & Ceccio, S. L. 2016 Bubbly shock propagation as a mechanism for sheet-to-cloud transition of partial cavities. J. Fluid Mech. 802, 3778.
de Graaf, K. L., Brandner, P. A. & Pearce, B. W. 2017 Spectral content of cloud cavitation about a sphere. J. Fluid Mech. 812, R1.
Harwood, C., Felli, M., Falchi, M., Garg, N., Ceccio, S. L. & Young, Y. L. 2019 The hydroelastic response of a surface-piercing hydrofoil in multi-phase flow. Part 1. Passive hydroelasticity. J. Fluid Mech. 881, 313364.
Harwood, C., Felli, M., Falchi, M., Garg, N., Ceccio, S. L. & Young, Y. L. 2020 The hydroelastic response of a surface-piercing hydrofoil in multiphase flows. Part 2. Modal parameters and generalized fluid forces. J. Fluid Mech. 884, A3.
Ihara, A., Watanabe, H. & Shizukuishi, S. 1989 Experimental research of the effects of sweep on unsteady hydrofoil loadings in cavitation. Trans. ASME J. Fluids Engng 111 (3), 263270.
Jakobsen, J. K. 1964 On the mechanism of head breakdown in cavitating inducers. Trans. ASME J. Basic Engng 86 (2), 291305.
Kaplan, P. & Lehman, A. F. 1966 Experimental studies of hydroelastic instabilities of cavitating hydrofoils. J. Aircraft 3 (3), 262269.
Kato, K., Dan, H. & Matsudaira, Y. 2006 Lock-in phenomenon of pitching hydrofoil with cavitation breakdown. JSME Intl J. B 49 (3), 797805.
Kawakami, D. T., Fuji, A., Tsujimoto, Y. & Arndt, R. E. 2008 An assessment of the influence of environmental factors on cavitation instabilities. Trans. ASME J. Fluids Engng 130 (3), 031303.
Kawanami, Y., Kato, H. & Yamaguchi, H. 1998 Three-dimensional characteristics of the cavities formed on a two-dimensional hydrofoil. In Third International Symposium on Cavitation, vol. 1, pp. 191196. Laboratoire des Ecoulements Géophysiques et Industriels, Grenoble, France.
Kawanami, Y., Kato, H., Yamaguchi, H., Tanimura, M. & Tagaya, Y. 1997 Mechanism and control of cloud cavitation. Trans. ASME J. Fluids Engng 119 (4), 788794.
Kjeldsen, M. & Arndt, R. E. 2001 Joint time frequency analysis techniques: a study of transitional dynamics in sheet/cloud cavitation. In 4th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2001). California Institute of Technology.
Kjeldsen, M., Arndt, R. E. A. & Effertz, M. 2000 Spectral characteristics of sheet/cloud cavitation. Trans. ASME J. Fluids Engng 122 (3), 481487.
Knapp, R. T. 1955 Recent investigations of the mechanics of cavitation and cavitation damage. Trans. ASME 77, 10451054.
Kubota, A., Kato, H., Yamaguchi, H. & Maeda, M. 1989 Unsteady structure measurement of cloud cavitation on a foil section using conditional sampling technique. ASME J. Fluids Engng 111 (2), 204210.
Laberteaux, K. R. & Ceccio, S. L. 2001a Partial cavity flows. Part 1. Cavities forming on models without spanwise variation. J. Fluid Mech. 431, 141.
Laberteaux, K. R. & Ceccio, S. L. 2001b Partial cavity flows. Part 2. Cavities forming on test objects with spanwise variation. J. Fluid Mech. 431, 4363.
de Lange, D. F. & de Bruin, G. J. 1998 Sheet cavitation and cloud cavitation, re-entrant jet and three-dimensionality. Appl. Sci. Res. 58 (1–4), 91114.
Le, Q., Franc, J. & Michel, J. 1993 Partial cavities: global behaviour and mean pressure distribution. Trans. ASME J. Fluids Engng 115, 243243.
Leroux, J., Astolfi, J. A. & Billard, J. Y. 2004 An experimental study of unsteady partial cavitation. ASME J. Fluids Engng 126 (1), 94101.
Noordzij, L. & Van Wijngaarden, L. 1974 Relaxation effects, caused by relative motion, on shockwaves in gas-bubble/liquid mixtures. J. Fluid Mech. 66 (1), 115143.
Pearce, B. W., Brandner, P. A., Garg, N., Young, Y. L., Phillips, A. W. & Clarke, D. B. 2017 The influence of bend-twist coupling on the dynamic response of cavitating composite hydrofoils. In 5th International Symposium on Marine Propulsors (SMP’17), pp. 803813. VTT Technical Research Center of Finland Ltd.
Pelz, P. F., Keil, T. & Groß, T. F. 2017 The transition from sheet to cloud cavitation. J. Fluid Mech. 817, 439454.
Pham, T. M., Larrarte, F. & Fruman, D. H. 1999 Investigation of unsteady sheet cavitation and cloud cavitation mechanisms. ASME J. Fluids Engng 121 (2), 289296.
Prothin, S., Billard, J. & Djeridi, H. 2016 Image processing using proper orthogonal and dynamic mode decompositions for the study of cavitation developing on a NACA0015 foil. Exp. Fluids 57 (10), 157.
Reisman, G. E., Wang, Y. C. & Brennen, C. E. 1998 Observations of shockwaves in cloud cavitation. J. Fluid Mech. 355, 255283.
Russell, P. S., Venning, J. A., Brandner, P. A., Pearce, B. W., Giosio, D. R. & Ceccio, S. L. 2018 Microbubble disperse flow about a lifting surface. In 32nd Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics. US Office of Naval Research and Hamburg University of Technology.
Schmidt, O. T., Towne, A., Rigas, G., Colonius, T. & Bres, G. A. 2018 Spectral analysis of jet turbulence. J. Fluid Mech. 855, 953982.
Shamsborhan, H., Coutier-Delgosha, O., Caignaert, G. & Nour, F. A. 2010 Experimental determination of the speed of sound in cavitating flows. Exp. Fluids 49 (6), 13591373.
Smith, S. M., Venning, J. A., Brandner, P. A., Pearce, B. W., Giosio, D. R. & Young, Y. L. 2018 The influence of fluid–structure interaction on cloud cavitation about a hydrofoil. In Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2018). ASME Press.
Smith, S. M., Venning, J. A., Giosio, D. R., Brandner, P. A., Pearce, B. W. & Young, Y. L. 2017 Cloud cavitation behaviour on a hydrofoil due to fluid-structure interaction. In 17th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery, ISROMAC 2017.
Smith, S. M., Venning, J. A., Giosio, D. R., Brandner, P. A., Pearce, B. W. & Young, Y. L. 2019 Cloud cavitation behavior on a hydrofoil due to fluid–structure interaction. Trans. ASME J. Fluids Engng 141 (4), 041105.
Smith, S. M., Venning, J. A., Pearce, B. W., Young, Y.-L. & Brandner, P. A. 2020 The influence of fluid–structure interaction on cloud cavitation about a flexible hydrofoil. Part 2. J. Fluid Mech; doi:10.1017/jfm.2020.323.
Stutz, B. & Reboud, J. L. 1997 Experiments on unsteady cavitation. Exp. Fluids 22 (3), 191198.
Torrence, C. & Compo, G. P. 1998 A practical guide to wavelet analysis. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79 (1), 6178.
Towne, A., Schmidt, O. T. & Colonius, T. 2018 Spectral proper orthogonal decomposition and its relationship to dynamic mode decomposition and resolvent analysis. J. Fluid Mech. 847, 821867.
Venning, J. A., Giosio, D. R., Pearce, B. W. & Brandner, P. A. 2018a Global mode visualization in cavitating flows. In Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2018). ASME Press.
Venning, J. A., Giosio, D. R., Smith, S. M. P., Bryce, W. & Brandner, P. A. 2018b The influence of nucleation on the spectral content of cloud cavitation about a hydrofoil. In Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Cavitation (CAV2018), ASME Press.
Venning, J. A., Khoo, M. T., Pearce, B. W. & Brandner, P. A. 2018c Background nuclei measurements and implications for cavitation inception in hydrodynamic test facilities. Exp. Fluids 59 (4), 71.
Venning, J. A., Smith, S. M., Brandner, P. A., Giosio, D. R. & Pearce, B. W. 2017 The influence of nuclei content on cloud cavitation about a hydrofoil. In 17th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery, ISROMAC 2017.
Welch, P. 1967 The use of fast Fourier transform for the estimation of power spectra: a method based on time averaging over short, modified periodograms. IEEE Trans. Audio Electroacoust. 15 (2), 7073.
Wu, J., Ganesh, H. & Ceccio, S. 2019 Multimodal partial cavity shedding on a two-dimensional hydrofoil and its relation to the presence of bubbly shocks. Exp. Fluids 60 (4), 66.
Young, Y. L., Garg, N., Brandner, P. A., Pearce, B. W., Butler, D., Clarke, D. & Phillips, A. W. 2018 Material bend-twist coupling effects on cavitating response of composite hydrofoils. In 10th International Cavitation Symposium (CAV2018). ASME Press.
Zarruk, G. A., Brandner, P. A., Pearce, B. W. & Phillips, A. W. 2014 Experimental study of the steady fluid-structure interaction of flexible hydrofoils. J. Fluids Struct. 51, 326343.
MathJax
MathJax is a JavaScript display engine for mathematics. For more information see http://www.mathjax.org.

JFM classification

Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Movies

Smith et al. supplementary movie 1
At σ = 1.2, the hydrofoil is seen to experience sheet cavitation where the attached cavity is confined to a small portion of the chord towards the leading edge with length of Lc/c ~ 0.2. The cavity is broken-up into small scale structures driven primarily by inter-facial instabilities such as Kelvin-Helmholtz driven spanwise vorticity lines and turbulent transition.

 Unknown (6.2 MB)
6.2 MB
UNKNOWN
Movies

Smith et al. supplementary movie 2
As σ is reduced to 1.0, cloud cavitation is seen to occur with the conditions allowing a re-entrant jet to form and reach the upstream extent of the cavity, causing periodic detachment and the formation of a cavitation cloud. This is seen to be confined to around the mid-span with only the detachment of small bubbly vortices occurring towards the spanwise extents.

 Unknown (6.2 MB)
6.2 MB
UNKNOWN
Movies

Smith et al. supplementary movie 3
Multiple stable shedding modes form along the span of the hydrofoil as σ reaches 0.8 with the Type IIa mode shedding at St = 0.408 in the upper portion of the span (0.0 < y/b < 0.4), while the Type IIb mode sheds at St = 0.500 in the lower portion (0.6 < y/b < 0.8).

 Unknown (10.1 MB)
10.1 MB
UNKNOWN
Movies

Smith et al. supplementary movie 4
Further reduction in σ to 0.7 sees the hydrofoil enter lock-in where the Type IIa shedding frequency matches a sub-harmonic of the hydrofoil leading to amplified structural excitations. The Type IIa shedding is seen to occur across majority of the span with only small broken-up clouds shed towards the tip.

 Unknown (10.1 MB)
10.1 MB
UNKNOWN
Movies

Smith et al. supplementary movie 5
As σ reaches 0.6, the attached cavity now extends to the trailing edge of the hydrofoil with both re-entrant jet and shockwave instabilities present in the flow. The re-entrant jet can be seen slowing down as it approaches the upstream extent of the cavity, stalling before causing detachment. This leads to perturbations to form over the cavity, resulting in small-scale break-up generating a bubbly flow of high void-fraction. This preconditions the flow to allow shockwave propagation that cause the shedding of the cloud cavitation where the re-entrant jet instability drives the frequency that the shedding occurs.

 Unknown (8.6 MB)
8.6 MB
UNKNOWN
Movies

Smith et al. supplementary movie 6
With σ reducing to 0.4, the cavity extends beyond the hydrofoil trailing edge with a re-entrant jet still forming but lacking momentum to reach the upstream extent of the cavity. The shockwave instability is prevalent in this condition which is characterized by alternate shedding from the upper and middle portion of the span with this sequence featuring an irregular shedding event in the lower portion.

 Unknown (9.0 MB)
9.0 MB
UNKNOWN
Movies

Smith et al. supplementary movie 7
At σ = 0.3, the shedding is solely driven by shockwave propagation where a re-entrant jet still forms but lacks sufficient time and momentum to reach the upstream extent of the cavity. This results in the shockwave driving the shedding frequency at a rate of St = 0.091 where a cycle consists of a large-scale cloud is shed from the upper portion of the span, followed by two smaller scale clouds in quick succession.

 Unknown (8.7 MB)
8.7 MB
UNKNOWN
Movies

Smith et al. supplementary movie 8
As σ reaches 0.2, the cavity grows to a length of Lc/c ~ 1.5, thus forming a supercavity. Closing far downstream of the trailing-edge with no strong adverse pressure gradient present, the supercavity becomes more stable than partial cavities as no substantial shedding mechanisms can form.

 Unknown (4.9 MB)
4.9 MB

The influence of fluid–structure interaction on cloud cavitation about a stiff hydrofoil. Part 1.

  • Samuel M. Smith (a1), James A. Venning (a1), Bryce W. Pearce (a1), Yin Lu Young (a2) and Paul A. Brandner (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.