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The dynamics of the near field of strong jets in crossflows

  • Sergio L. V. Coelho (a1) (a2) and J. C. R. Hunt (a3)

Abstract

An inviscid three-dimensional vortex-sheet model for the near field of a strong jet issuing from a pipe into a crossflow is derived. The solution for this model shows that the essential mechanisms governing this idealized flow are the distortion of the main transverse vorticity by the generation of additional axial and transverse vorticity within the pipe owing to the pressure gradients induced by the external flow, and the convection of both components of vorticity from the upwind side of the jet to its downwind side.

The deformation of the cross-section of the jet which is predicted by this model is compared with the deformation predicted by the commonly used time-dependent two-dimensional vortex-sheet model. Differences arise because the latter model does not take into account the effects of the transport of the transverse component of vorticity. The complete three-dimensional vortex-sheet model leads to a symmetrical deformation of the jet cross-section and no overall deflection of the jet in the direction of the stream.

To account for viscous effects, the initial region of a strong jet issuing into a uniform crossflow is modelled as an entraining three-dimensional vortex sheet, which acts like a sheet of vortices and sinks, redistributing the vorticity in the bounding shear layer and inducing non-symmetrical deformations of the cross-section of the jet. This leads to a deflection of the jet in the direction of the stream, and the loci of the centroids of the cross-sections of the jet describe a quadratic curve.

Deformations predicted by each of the three models are compared with measurements obtained from photographs of the cross-sections of a jet of air emerging into a uniform crossflow in a wind tunnel. Mean velocity measurements around the jet made with a hot-wire anemometer agree with the theory; they clearly invalidate models of jets based on ‘pressure drag’.

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References

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The dynamics of the near field of strong jets in crossflows

  • Sergio L. V. Coelho (a1) (a2) and J. C. R. Hunt (a3)

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