Direct numerical simulations of viscoelastic turbulent channel flow laden with neutrally buoyant spherical particles are performed. Two FENE-P viscoelastic and one Newtonian fluid are examined, and for each the particle-laden configuration is contrasted to a reference condition without seeding. The size of the particles is larger than the dissipation length scale, and their presence enhances drag in a manner that is intrinsically different in the viscoelastic and Newtonian flows. While the particles effectively suppress the turbulence activity, they significantly enhance the polymer stresses. The polymer chains are markedly stretched in the vicinity of the particles, altering the correlation between the turbulence and polymer work that is commonly observed in single-phase viscoelastic turbulence. At the lower elasticity, the particles enhance the cycle of hibernating and active turbulence and, in turn, their migration and volume-fraction profiles are qualitatively altered by the intermittency of the turbulence. Particle–fluid momentum transfer is investigated by estimating the local fluid field on a trimmed spherical shell around the individual particles. And by comparing the particle microstructures, a lower probability of particle alignment in the streamwise direction is observed in the viscoelastic configuration. This effect is attributed to a qualitative difference in the conditionally averaged velocity fields in the vicinity of the particles in the Newtonian and viscoelastic flows.