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Convection driven by differential heating at a horizontal boundary



We report laboratory and numerical experiments with the convective circulation that develops in a long channel driven by heating and cooling through opposite halves of the horizontal base. The problem is similar to that posed by Stommel (Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. vol. 48, 1962, p. 766) and Rossby (Deep-Sea Res. vol. 12, 1965, p. 9; Tellus vol. 50, 1998, p. 242), where flow forced by a linear temperature variation along the ocean surface or the base of a tank presented a demonstration of the smallness of sinking regions in the meridional overturning circulation of the oceans. In contrast to the previous experiments, we use small aspect ratio, larger Rayleigh numbers, piecewise uniform boundary conditions and an imposed input heat flux. The flow is characterized by a vigorous overturning circulation cell filling the box length and depth. A stable thermocline forms above the cooled base and is advected over the heated part of the base, where it is eroded from below by small-scale three-dimensional convection, forming a ‘convective mixed layer’. At the endwall, the convective mixing is overshadowed by a narrow but turbulent plume rising through the full depth of the box. The return flow along the top of the box is turbulent with large slowly migrating eddies, and occupies approximately a third of the total depth. Theoretical scaling laws give temperature differences, thermocline thickness and velocities that are in good agreement with the experimental data and two-dimensional numerical solutions. The measured and computed density structure is largely similar to the thermocline and abyssal stratification in the oceans.


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Journal of Fluid Mechanics
  • ISSN: 0022-1120
  • EISSN: 1469-7645
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-fluid-mechanics
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