Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-78dcdb465f-fqvcn Total loading time: 0.265 Render date: 2021-04-16T18:38:50.149Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Natural drinking strategies

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 April 2012

Wonjung Kim
Affiliation:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
John W. M. Bush
Affiliation:
Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

We examine the fluid mechanics of drinking in nature. We classify the drinking strategies of a broad range of creatures according to the principal forces involved, and present physical pictures for each style. Simple scaling arguments are developed and tested against existing data. While suction is the most common drinking strategy, various alternative styles have evolved among creatures whose morphological, physiological and environmental constraints preclude it. Particular attention is given to creatures small relative to the capillary length, whose drinking styles rely on relatively subtle interfacial effects. We also discuss attempts to rationalize various drinking strategies through consideration of constrained optimization problems. Some biomimetic applications are discussed.

Type
Papers
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1. Adolph, E. F. 1939 Measurements of water drinking in dogs. Am. J. Physiol. 125, 7586.Google Scholar
2. Andersson, M., Schaar, J. & Wiktorsson, H. 1984 Effects of drinking water flow rates and social rank on performance and drinking behaviour of tied-up dairy cows. Livest. Prod. Sci. 11, 599610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3. Bels, V. L., Davenport, J. & Renous, S. 1995 Drinking and water expulsion in the diamondback turtle Malaclemys terrapin . J. Zool. 236, 483497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4. Bennet-Clark, H. C. 1963 Negative pressures produced in the pharyngeal pump of the blood sucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus . J. Expl Biol. 40, 223229.Google Scholar
5. Bentley, P. J., Bretz, W. L. & Schmidt-Nielsen, K. 1967 Osmoregulation in the diamondback terrapin, Malaclemys terrapin centrata . J. Expl Biol. 46, 161167.Google ScholarPubMed
6. Berkhoudt, G., Kardong, K. V. & Zweers, G. A. 1995 Mechanics of drinking in the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis . Zoology 98, 92103.Google Scholar
7. Boggs, C. L. 1988 Rates of nectar feeding in butterflies: effects of sex, size, age and nectar concentration. Funct. Ecol. 2, 289295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8. Borrell, B. J. 2006 Mechanics of nectar feeding in the orchid bee Euglossa imperialis: pressure, viscosity and flow. J. Expl Biol. 209, 49014907.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
9. Borrell, B. J. 2007 Scaling of nectar foraging in orchid bees. Am. Nat. 169, 569580.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10. Bott, E., Denton, D. A. & Weller, S. 1965 Water drinking in sheep with oesophageal fistulae. J. Physiol. 76, 323336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11. Bush, J. W. M. & Hu, D. L. 2006 Walking on water: biolocomotion at the interface. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 38, 339369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
12. Bush, J. W. M., Hu, D. L. & Prakash, M. 2008 The integument of water-walking arthropods: form and function. Adv. Insect Physiol. 34, 117192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
13. Bush, J. W. M., Peaudecerf, F., Prakash, M. & Quéré, D. 2010 On a tweezer for droplets. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 161, 1014.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
14. Carpenter, P. W., Berkouk, K. & Lucey, A. D. 2003 Pressure wave propagation in fluid-filled co-axial elastic tubes. Part 2. Mechanisms for the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Trans. ASME: J. Biomech. Engng 125, 857863.Google ScholarPubMed
15. Carré, A. & Mittal, K. L. 2009 Superhydrophobic Surfaces. VSP/Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
16. Crompton, A. W. & Musinsky, C. 2011 How dogs lap: ingestion and intraoral transport in Canis familiaris . Biol. Lett. 7, 882884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
17. Cundall, D. 2000 Drinking in snakes: kinematic cycling and water transport. J. Expl Biol. 203, 21712185.Google ScholarPubMed
18. Daniel, T. L. & Kingsolver, J. G. 1983 Feeding strategy and the mechanics of blood sucking in insects. J. Theor. Biol. 105, 661672.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
19. Davenport, J. & Macedo, E.-A. 1990 Behavioural osmotic control in the euryhaline diamondback terrapin Malaclemys terrapin: responses to low salinity and rainfall. J. Zool. 220, 487496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20. Dettre, R. H. & Johnson, R. E. 1964 Contact angle hysteresis II. Contact angle measurements on rough surfaces. In Contact Angle, Wettability, and Adhesion (ed. Fowkes, F. M. ). Advances in Chemistry Series , vol. 43, pp. 136144. American Chemical Society.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
21. Ewald, P. W. & Williams, W. A. 1982 Function of the bill and tongue in nectar uptake by hummingbirds. The Auk 99, 573576.Google Scholar
22. Garrod, R. P., Harris, L. G., Schofield, W. C. E., McGettrick, J., Ward, L. J., Teare, D. O. H. & Badyal, J. P. S. 2007 Mimicking a Stenocara beetle’s back for microcondensation using plasmachemical patterned superhydrophobic–superhydrophilic surfaces. Langmuir 23, 689693.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
23. Gillis, G. B. & Lauder, G. V. 1994 Aquatic prey transport and the comparative kinematics of Ambystoma tigrinum feeding behaviours. J. Expl Biol. 187, 159179.Google Scholar
24. Grotberg, J. B. 1994 Pulmonary flow and transport phenomena. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 26, 529571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
25. Hainsworth, F. R. 1973 On the tongue of a hummingbird: its role in the rate and energetics of feeding. Compar. Biochem. Phys. 46A, 6578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
26. Harder, L. D. 1986 Effects of nectar concentration and flower depth on flower handling efficiency of bumble bees. Oecologia 69, 309315.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
27. Heidweiller, J., van Loon, J. A. & Zweers, G. A. 1992 Flexibility of the drinking mechanism in adult chickens (Gallus gallus) (Aves). Zoomorphology 111, 141159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
28. Heidweiller, J. & Zweers, G. A. 1990 Drinking mechanisms in the zebra finch and the bengalese finch. The Condor 92, 128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
29. Josens, R. B. & Farina, W. M 2001 Nectar feeding by the hovering hawk moth Macroglossum stellatarum: intake rate as a function of viscosity and concentration of sucrose solutions. J. Compar. Physiol. 187, 661665.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
30. Kim, W., Gilet, T. & Bush, J. W. M. 2011 Optimal concentrations in nectar feeding. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 16 61816 621.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
31. Kim, W., Peaudecerf, F., Baldwin, M. & Bush, J. W. M. 2012 The hummingbird’s tongue: a self-assembling capillary syphon. Proc. Roy. Soc. B (submitted).Google Scholar
32. Kingsolver, J. G. & Daniel, T. L. 1979 On the mechanics and energetics of nectar feeding in butterflies. J. Theor. Biol. 76, 167179.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
33. Kingsolver, J. G. & Daniel, T. L. 1983 Mechanical determinants of nectar feeding strategy in hummingbirds: energetics, tongue morphology, and licking behaviour. Oecologia 60, 214226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
34. Kooloos, J. G. M. & Zweers, G. A. 1989 Mechanics of drinking in the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, Anatidae). J. Morphol. 199, 327347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
35. Lauga, E. & Powers, T. R. 2009 The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms. Rep. Prog. Phys. 72, 096601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
36. Lee, S. J., Kim, B. H. & Lee, J. Y. 2009 Experimental study on the fluid mechanics of blood sucking in the proboscis of a female mosquito. J. Biomech. 42, 857864.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
37. Lighthill, M. J. 1975 Mathematical Biofluiddynamics. SIAM.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
38. Maddison, S., Wod, R. J., Rolls, E. T., Rolls, B. J. & Gibbs, J. 1980 Drinking in the rhesus monkeys: peripheral factors. J. Compar. Physiol. Psychol. 94, 365374.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
39. May, P. G. 1985 Nectar uptake rates and optimal nectar concentrations of two butterfly species. Oecologia 66, 381386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
40. McClung, J. R. & Goldberg, S. J. 2000 Functional anatomy of the hypoglossal innervated muscles of the rat tongue: a model for elongation and protrusion of the mammalian tongue. Anat. Rec. 260, 378386.3.0.CO;2-A>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
41. McMahon, T. A. & Bonner, J. T. 1983 On Size and Life. Scientific American Library.Google Scholar
42. Mitchell, R. J. & Paton, D. C. 1990 Effects of nectar volume and concentration on sugar intake rates of Australian honeyeaters (Meliphagidae). Oecologia 83, 238246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
43. Morrison, N. J., Richardson, J., Dunn, L. & Pardy, R. L. 1989 Respiratory muscle performance in normal elderly subjects and patients with COPD. Chest 95, 9094.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
44. Parker, A. R. & Lawrence, C. R. 2001 Water capture by a desert beetle. Nature 414, 3334.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
45. Paul, J. & Roces, F. 2003 Fluid intake rates in ants correlate with their feeding habits. J. Insect Physiol. 49, 347357.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
46. Pedley, T. J. 1977 Pulmonary fluid dynamics. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 9, 229274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
47. Pedley, T. J. & Kessler, J. O. 1992 Hydrodynamic phenomena in suspensions of swimming microoganisms. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 24, 313358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
48. Pivnick, K. A. & McNeil, J. N. 1985 Effects of nectar concentration on butterfly feeding: measured feeding rates for Thymelicus lineola (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and a general feeding model for adult Lepidoptera. Oecologia 66, 226237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
49. Prakash, M. & Bush, J. W. M. 2011 Interfacial propulsion by directional adhesion. Intl J. Non-Linear Mech. 46, 607615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
50. Prakash, M., Quéré, D. & Bush, J. W. M. 2008 Surface tension transport of prey by feeding shorebirds: the capillary ratchet. Science 320, 931934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
51. Py, C., Reverdy, P., Doppler, L., Bico, J., Roman, B. & Baroud, C. N. 2007 Capillary origami: spontaneous wrapping of a droplet with an elastic sheet. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 156103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
52. Quéré, D. 1999 Fluid coating on a fibre. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 31, 347384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
53. Rabinowitz, T. & Tandler, B. 1986 Papillary morphology of the tongue of the American chameleon: Anolis carolinensis . Anat. Rec. 216, 483489.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
54. Reis, P. M., Jung, S., Aristoff, J. M. & Stocker, R. 2010 How cats lap: water uptake by Felis catus . Science 330, 12311234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
55. Rico-Guevara, A. & Rubega, M. A. 2011 The hummingbird tongue is a fluid trap, not a capillary tube. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 93569360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
56. Roberts, W. M. 1995 Hummingbird licking behaviour and the energetics of nectar feeding. The Auk 112, 456463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
57. Roces, F., Winter, Y. & von Helversen, O. 1993 Nectar concentration preference and water balance in a flower visiting bat, Glossophaga soricina antillarum . In Animal–Plant Interactions in Tropical Environments (ed. Barthlott, W. ), pp. 159165. Museum Koenig.Google Scholar
58. Rosenson, R. S., McCormick, A. & Uretz, E. F. 1996 Distribution of blood viscosity values and biochemical correlates in healthy adults. Clin. Chem. 42, 11891195.Google ScholarPubMed
59. Roubik, D. W. & Buchmann, S. L. 1984 Nectar selection by melipona and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and the ecology of nectar intake by bee colonies in a tropical forest. Oecologia 61, 110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
60. Rubega, M. A. & Obst, B. S. 1993 Surface-tension feeding in phalaropes: discovery of a novel feeding mechanism. The Auk 110, 169178.Google Scholar
61. Schlamowitz, R., Hainsworth, F. R. & Wolf, L. L. 1976 On the tongues of sunbirds. The Condor 78, 104107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
62. Schmidt-Nielsen, B., Schmidt-Nielsen, K., Houpt, T. R. & Jarnum, S. A. 1956 Water balance of the camel. Am. J. Physiol. 185, 185194.Google ScholarPubMed
63. Sherbrooke, W. C. 2004 Integumental water movement and rate of water ingestion during rain harvesting in the Texas horned lizard, Phrynosoma cornutum . Amphibia–Reptilia 25, 2939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
64. Sherbrooke, W. C., Scardino, A. J., de Nys, R. & Schwarzkopf, L. 2007 Functional morphology of scale hinges used to transport water: convergent drinking adaptations in desert lizards (Moloch horridus and Phrynosoma cornutum). Zoomorphology 126, 89102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
65. Stone, H. A., Stroock, A. D. & Ajdari, A. 2004 Engineering flows in small devices: microfluidics toward a lab-on-a-chip. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 36, 381411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
66. Tamm, S. & Gass, C. L. 1986 Energy intake rates and nectar concentration preferences by hummingbirds. Oecologia 70, 2023.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
67. Triantafyllou, M. S., Triantafyllou, G. S. & Yue, D. K. P. 2000 Hydrodynamics of fishlike swimming. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 32, 3353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
68. Wagemans, F., Chardon, M., Gasc, J. P., Renous, S. & Bels, V. L. 1999 Drinking behaviour in Anolis carolinensis (Voigt, 1837) and Oplurus cuvieri (Gray, 1831) (Reptilia: Iguania: Iguanidae). Can. J. Zool. 77, 11361146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
69. Wang, Z. J. 2005 Dissecting insect flight. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 37, 183210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
70. Weast, R. C. 1974 Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. CRC Press.Google Scholar
71. Weijnen, J. A. 1998 Licking behaviour in the rat: measurement and situational control of licking frequency. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 22, 751760.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
72. West, J. B. 2001 Snorkel breathing in the elephant explains the unique anatomy of its pleura. Respir. Physiol. 126, 18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
73. Weymouth, R. D., Lasiewski, R. C. & Berger, A. J. 1964 The tongue apparatus in hummingbirds. Acta Anat. 58, 252270.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
74. Wilson, J. F., Mahajan, U., Wainwright, S. A. & Croner, L. J. 1991 A continuum model of elephant trunks. Trans. ASME: J. Biomech. Engng 113, 7984.Google ScholarPubMed
75. Winter, Y. & von Helversen, O. 2003 Operational tongue length in phyllostomid nectar-feeding bats. J. Mammal. 84, 886896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
76. Wu, T. Y. 2011 Fish swimming and bird/insect flight. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 43, 2558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
77. Zhai, L., Berg, M. C., Cebeci, F. C., Kim, Y., Milwid, J. M., Rubner, M. F. & Cohen, R. E. 2006 Patterned superhydrophobic surfaces: toward a synthetic mimic of the Namib desert beetle. Nano Lett. 6, 12131217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
78. Zweers, G., de Jong, F., Berkhoudt, H. & Berge, J. C. V. 1995 Filter feeding in flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber). The Condor 97, 297324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
79. Zweers, G. A. 1982 Drinking of the pigeon (Columba livia L.). Behaviour 80, 274317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 666 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 16th April 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Natural drinking strategies
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Natural drinking strategies
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Natural drinking strategies
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *