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Formation of vortex rings from falling drops

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 March 2006

David S. Chapman
Affiliation:
Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
P. R. Critchlow
Affiliation:
Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

Abstract

A study of the formation of vortex rings when a liquid drop falls into a stationary bath of the same liquid has been made. The investigation covered liquids with a wide range in surface tensions, densities and viscosities. The results confirm the reported existence of optimum dropping height from which the drop develops into a superior vortex ring. The optimum heights are analysed, by a photographic study, in terms of the liquid drop oscillation. It is found that vortex rings are formed best if the drop is spherical and changing from an oblate to a prolate spheroid at the moment of contact with the bath. A Reynolds number has been determined for vortex rings produced at optimum dropping heights; these numbers are approximately 1000. A possible mechanism for the ring formation is suggested.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© 1967 Cambridge University Press

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References

Ball, R. S. 1868 Phil. Mag. 36, 12.
Edwards, M. H. 1965 Private communication.
Kutter, V. 1916 Physik Z. 17, 574.
Northrup, E. F. 1912 Nature, Lond. 88, 463.
Rogers, W. B. 1858 Am. J. Sci. 26, 246.
Thomson, Sir W. 1867 Phil. Mag. 34, 15.
Thomson, J. J. & Newall, H. F. 1885 Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. 39, 417.
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