Published online by Cambridge University Press: 01 March 2004
The evolution of a short injection-hole jet issuing into a crossflow at low blowing ratios is presented. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to determine structural features of the jet/crossflow interaction throughout its development from within the jet supply channel (which feeds the holes), through the injection hole, and into the crossflow. The effect of supply channel feed orientations, i.e. counter to, or in the same direction as the crossflow is emphasized. Feed orientation profoundly affects such jet characteristics as trajectory and lateral spreading, as well as its structural features. Fluid within the high-speed supply channel exhibits swirling motions similar to the flow induced by a pair of counter-rotating vortices. The sense of rotation of the swirling fluid depends upon the orientation of the supply channel flow with respect to the crossflow, and in turn impacts the in-hole velocity fields. In the coflow supply channel geometry (channel flow is in the same direction as the free stream), a pair of vortices exists within the hole with the same sense of rotation as the primary jet counter-rotating vortex pair (CRVP). In contrast, the counterflow supply channel configuration has in-hole vortices of opposite rotational sense to that of the CRVP. The in-hole vortices interact constructively or destructively with the CRVP, thus affecting the strength and coherence of the CRVP. The counterflow configuration has a weakened CRVP because of destructive interference with the in-hole vortices. The weaker CRVP has a lower trajectory and increased spanwise spreading. External to the injection hole, a pair of vortices exists immediately downstream of the jet. They are initially perpendicular to the boundary-layer plate near the wall and are outboard of the streamwise hole centreline. These vortices, denoted ‘downstream spiral separation node’ (DSSN) vortices, are affected by both the supply channel feed direction and the blowing ratio. They appear to form by free-stream fluid wrapping around the jet and interacting with the CRVP. The coflow supply channel geometry is associated with the largest and most well-defined DSSN vortices, and their size is inversely proportional to the blowing ratio. At low blowing ratio, these vortices induce a large recirculating flow region downstream of the injection hole at the wall.
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