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Dilatational-wave-induced aerodynamic cooling in transitional hypersonic boundary layers

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 January 2021

Yiding Zhu
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Turbulence and Complex Systems, Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engines, Peking University, Beijing 100871, PR China
Dingwei Gu
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Turbulence and Complex Systems, Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engines, Peking University, Beijing 100871, PR China
Wenkai Zhu
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Turbulence and Complex Systems, Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engines, Peking University, Beijing 100871, PR China
Shiyi Chen
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Turbulence and Complex Systems, Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engines, Peking University, Beijing 100871, PR China
Cunbiao Lee
Affiliation:
State Key Laboratory of Turbulence and Complex Systems, Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engines, Peking University, Beijing 100871, PR China
Elaine S. Oran
Affiliation:
Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

The evolution of an instability in a transitional hypersonic boundary layer and its effects on aerodynamic cooling are investigated over 260-mm-long flared cone models with smooth and porous surfaces. Experiments are conducted in a Mach 6 wind tunnel using Rayleigh-scattering flow visualization, fast-response pressure sensors and an infrared camera. Calculations are performed based on both direct numerical simulations (DNS) and linear stability theory (LST). The unit Reynolds number is $9.7 \times 10^6\ \textrm {m}^{-1}$. It is confirmed that a cooled region appears downstream of the local heat peak as the second-mode instability evolves over the smooth-surface model, as found in other studies. Comparisons between the DNS and LST results show that the nonlinear interaction of the second mode causes the phase difference $\phi _{p\theta }$ to change between the periodic pressure and dilatation waves. This forms a negative cycle-averaged pressure dilatation near the wall and creates the cooled region. Further, by using porous steel to modify the sound admittance of the model surface, it is possible to artificially obtain negative cycle-averaged pressure dilatation near the wall, and thus reduce the surface heat flux by approximately 28 %. These results indicate the possibility of precisely controlling the pressure-dilatation-induced aerodynamic heating through the modification of surface sound admittance.

Type
JFM Papers
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

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Zhu et al. supplementary movie 1

Time variation in Temperature and Temperature growth ratio after the hypersonic wind tunnel starts, arising from IR camera measurement.

Video 2 MB

Zhu et al. supplementary movie 2

Top two) Evolution of pressure and dilatation waves in hypersonic wall-bounded flows. (Bottom) Time variation in Wpθ and its time-averaged value respectively for heating region and cooling region.

Video 6 MB

Zhu et al. supplementary material

Supplementary fig and captions

PDF 197 KB

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